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  1. Content type: Educational Review

    Patellar maltracking occurs as a result of an imbalance in the dynamic relationship between the patella and trochlea. This is often secondary to an underlying structural abnormality. The clinical evaluation ca...

    Authors: Zaid Jibri, Paul Jamieson, Kawan S. Rakhra, Marcos L. Sampaio and Geoffrey Dervin

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:65

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  2. Content type: Critical Review

    During the last decade, the management of acute ischemic stroke has changed dramatically, from an expectant bedside “wait and see” attitude towards active treatment, thanks to the continuous improvement of new...

    Authors: Thijs van der Zijden, Annelies Mondelaers, Laetitia Yperzeele, Maurits Voormolen and Paul M. Parizel

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:64

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  3. Content type: Educational Review

    In the healthy patient, blood returns to the heart via classic venous pathways. Obstruction of any one of these pathways will result in blood flow finding new collateral pathways to return to the heart. Althou...

    Authors: Thomas J. Marini, Komal Chughtai, Zachary Nuffer, Susan K. Hobbs and Katherine Kaproth-Joslin

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:63

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  4. Content type: Original Article

    To provide clinical validation of a recent 2D SENSE-based accelerated cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) sequence (accelerated k-t SENSE), investigating whether this technique accurately quantifies left v...

    Authors: Antonildes Nascimento Assuncao-Jr, Roberto Nery Dantas-Jr, Renata Margarida do Val, Priscilla Gianotto, Angela dos Santos Marin, Mark Golden, Marco Antonio Gutierrez, Jose Rodrigues Parga and Cesar Higa Nomura

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:62

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  5. Content type: Educational Review

    In the current era of breast imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an important role. To get its specificity better, some supporting or cooperative tools might be needed. The search for new methods con...

    Authors: Irmak Durur-Subasi

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:61

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  6. Content type: Pictorial Review

    The majority of soft tissue lesions in the foot and ankle are benign. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of th...

    Authors: Peter Hughes, Rhian Miranda and Anthony J. Doyle

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:60

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  7. Content type: Educational Review

    Total mesorectal excision has been the most effective treatment strategy adopted to reduce local recurrence rates among patients with rectal cancer. The morbidity associated with this radical surgical procedur...

    Authors: Cinthia D. Ortega and Rodrigo O. Perez

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:59

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  8. Content type: Educational Review

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive, rapidly growing B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which manifests in several subtypes including sporadic, endemic, and immunodeficiency-associated forms. Pathologically...

    Authors: Kevin Kalisz, Francesco Alessandrino, Rose Beck, Daniel Smith, Elias Kikano, Nikhil H. Ramaiya and Sree Harsha Tirumani

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:56

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  9. Content type: Original Article

    To determine the frequency, morphologic and demographic characteristics, and clinical relevance of the mineralisation of six skull base ligaments (interclinoid, caroticoclinoid, petrosphenoid, posterior petroc...

    Authors: Philip Touska, Sultana Hasso, Alp Oztek, Fungayi Chinaka and Steve E. J. Connor

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:55

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  10. Content type: Original Article

    In Luxembourg, the frequency of CT and MRI examinations per inhabitant is among the highest in Europe. A national audit was conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of CT and MRI examinations according to the...

    Authors: Aurélien Bouëtté, Alexandra Karoussou-Schreiner, Hubert Ducou Le Pointe, Martijn Grieten, Eric de Kerviler, Léon Rausin, Jean-Christophe Bouëtté and Patrick Majerus

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:54

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  11. Content type: Review

    Cancer cells can escape the immune system by different mechanisms. The evasion of cancer cells from immune surveillance is prevented by immune checkpoint inhibitors, allowing the patient’s own immune system to...

    Authors: B. M. Aarts, E. G. Klompenhouwer, S. L. Rice, F. Imani, T. Baetens, A. Bex, S. Horenblas, M. Kok, J. B. A. G. Haanen, R. G. H. Beets-Tan and F. M. Gómez

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:53

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  12. Content type: Pictorial Review

    Down syndrome (DS), or trisomy 21, is the leading genetic cause of intellectual incapacity worldwide, with a reported incidence of about 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 1,100 live births. Besides the several commonly known...

    Authors: Marta Rodrigues, Joana Nunes, Sofia Figueiredo, António Martins de Campos and Ana Filipa Geraldo

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:52

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  13. Content type: Statement

    The recently implemented European Council Basic Safety and Standards Directive (BSSD), 2013/59/Euratom lays down core radiation protection standards for European radiology departments, with a mandatory require...


    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:50

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  14. Content type: Critical Review

    To outline the current status of and provide insight into possible future research on the breast lesion excision system (BLES) as a diagnostic and therapeutic device.

    Authors: Wendelien B. G. Sanderink, Babette I. Laarhuis, Luc J. A. Strobbe, Ioannis Sechopoulos, Peter Bult, Nico Karssemeijer and Ritse M. Mann

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:49

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  15. Content type: Educational Review

    Adenomyosis is a challenging clinical condition that is commonly being diagnosed in women of reproductive age. To date, many aspects of the disease have not been fully understood, making management increasingl...

    Authors: Riham Dessouky, Sherif A. Gamil, Mohamad Gamal Nada, Rola Mousa and Yasmine Libda

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:48

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  16. Content type: Pictorial Review

    The fascial system is a continuum of connective tissues present everywhere throughout the body that can be locally involved in a large variety of disorders. These disorders include traumatic disorders (Morel-L...

    Authors: Thomas Kirchgesner, Cédric Tamigneaux, Souad Acid, Vasiliki Perlepe, Frédéric Lecouvet, Jacques Malghem and Bruno Vande Berg

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:47

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  17. Content type: Pictorial Review

    Central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (CNS-PTLD) is a rare disease that presents with non-specific signs and symptoms. The purpose of this article is to present the imaging appear...

    Authors: Matthew L. White, Drew W. Moore, Yan Zhang, Keiper D. Mark, Timothy C. Greiner and Philip J. Bierman

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:46

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  18. Content type: Pictorial Review

    The elbow is a complex joint whose stability is imparted by osseous and soft-tissue constraints. Anatomical and biomechanical knowledge of the supporting structures that provide stability to the medial and lat...

    Authors: José Acosta Batlle, Luis Cerezal, María Dolores López Parra, Beatriz Alba, Santiago Resano and Javier Blázquez Sánchez

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:43

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  19. Content type: Pictorial Review

    The pericardium could be involved in a variety of clinical disorders. The imaging findings are not specific for an individual pathology in most of the cases; however, patient’s clinical history may guide radio...

    Authors: Emre Ünal, Musturay Karcaaltincaba, Erhan Akpinar and Orhan Macit Ariyurek

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:42

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  20. Content type: Pictorial Review

    Ventral hernia repair with or without mesh placement is a commonly done procedure. Laparoscopic approach is more preferred than open in recent surgical practice. Complications occur as like any other abdominal...

    Authors: Aruna R. Patil, Shrivalli Nandikoor, Himansu Shekar Mohanty, Satyajit Godhi and Ravishankar Bhat

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:40

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  21. Content type: Original Article

    To derive conversions of antiquated exposure data into modern equivalents and to apply these in the assessment of the skin dose of pelvic radiographs since 1896.

    Authors: Gerrit J. Kemerink, Gerhard Kütterer, Pierre J. Kicken, Jos M. A. van Engelshoven, Kees J. Simon and Joachim E. Wildberger

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:39

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  22. Content type: Pictorial Review

    The portal vein (PV) is the main vessel of the portal venous system (PVS), which drains the blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen to the liver. There are several variants aff...

    Authors: Carolina Carneiro, Jorge Brito, Carlos Bilreiro, Marta Barros, Carla Bahia, Inês Santiago and Filipe Caseiro-Alves

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:38

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  23. Content type: Original Article

    Glioblastoma (GB) contains diverse histologic regions. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values are surrogates for the degree of number of cells within the tumour regions. Because an assessment of ADC value...

    Authors: Coral Durand-Muñoz, Eduardo Flores-Alvarez, Sergio Moreno-Jimenez and Ernesto Roldan-Valadez

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:36

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  24. Content type: Educational Review

    Declining rates of consent for standard perinatal autopsy has led to a rise in interest for postmortem imaging as an alternative, non-invasive method for investigation of childhood and perinatal deaths. Whilst...

    Authors: Susan C. Shelmerdine, Neil J. Sebire and Owen J. Arthurs

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:35

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  25. Content type: Pictorial Review

    The human body has 12 pairs of cranial nerves that control motor and sensory functions of the head and neck. The anatomy of cranial nerves is complex and its knowledge is crucial to detect pathological alterat...

    Authors: Nicola Romano, Margherita Federici and Antonio Castaldi

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:33

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  26. Content type: Guideline

    The European Society of Radiology (ESR) considers the use of evidence-based referral guidelines in clinical practice essential to ensure the appropriate utilisation of medical imaging for patients. Since 2014,...


    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:32

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  27. Content type: Original Article

    This pilot study aimed to characterize and compare radiographers’ mammography practice, including quality control and continuous professional development in five European countries.

    Authors: Nicole Richli Meystre, Anja Henner, Cláudia Sà dos Reis, Bergliot Strøm, José A. Pires Jorge, Tiina Kukkes and Eija Metsälä

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:31

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  28. Content type: Review

    Malignant vascular tumors as part of the vascular anomalies spectrum are extremely rare in children and young adults. Instead, benign vascular neoplasias are frequently encountered in the pediatric patient pop...

    Authors: Moritz Wildgruber, Maliha Sadick, René Müller-Wille and Walter A. Wohlgemuth

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:30

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  29. Content type: Pictorial Review

    Paragangliomas arise from paraganglion cells which serve varied regulatory tasks in the body. When these cells demonstrate neoplasia within the head and neck, they typically present in characteristic locations...

    Authors: Jarett Thelen and Alok A. Bhatt

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:29

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  30. Content type: Review

    Human cancers represent complex structures, which display substantial inter- and intratumor heterogeneity in their genetic expression and phenotypic features. However, cancers usually exhibit characteristic st...

    Authors: Roberto García-Figueiras, Sandra Baleato-González, Anwar R. Padhani, Antonio Luna-Alcalá, Juan Antonio Vallejo-Casas, Evis Sala, Joan C. Vilanova, Dow-Mu Koh, Michel Herranz-Carnero and Herbert Alberto Vargas

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:28

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  31. Content type: Pictorial Review

    Epiploic appendagitis is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain, determined by a benign self-limiting inflammation of the epiploic appendages. It may manifest with heterogeneous clinical presentations, mimicking...

    Authors: Dario Giambelluca, Roberto Cannella, Giovanni Caruana, Leonardo Salvaggio, Emanuele Grassedonio, Massimo Galia, Massimo Midiri and Giuseppe Salvaggio

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:26

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  32. Content type: Pictorial Review

    Indolent B cell lymphomas are a group of lymphoid malignancies characterized by their potential to undergo histologic transformation to aggressive lymphomas. While different subtypes of indolent B cell lymphom...

    Authors: Francesco Alessandrino, Pamela J. DiPiro, Jyothi P. Jagannathan, Gosangi Babina, Katherine M. Krajewski, Nikhil H. Ramaiya and Angela A. Giardino

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:25

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  33. Content type: Pictorial Review

    The thalami are bilateral ovoid grey matter cerebral structures bordering the third ventricle on both sides, which participate in functions such as relaying of sensory and motor signals, regulation of consciou...

    Authors: C. Tuttle, J. Boto, S. Martin, I. Barnaure, A. M. Korchi, M. Scheffler and M. I. Vargas

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:24

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  34. Content type: Review

    The complex anatomy of the carotid space within a small confined area is unique to the head and neck and allows for a vast array of pathology. This paper will review the anatomy of the carotid space from the s...

    Authors: Harris U. Chengazi and Alok A. Bhatt

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:21

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  35. Content type: Pictorial Review

    Muscle injuries of the hip and thigh are a highly relevant issue in competitive sports imaging. The gold standard in diagnostic imaging of muscle injuries is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Radiologists need...

    Authors: Kolja M. Thierfelder, Judith S. Gerhardt, Ioan N. Gemescu, Susan Notohamiprodjo, Christoph Rehnitz and Marc-André Weber

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:20

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  36. Content type: Pictorial Review

    MRI plays important roles in endometrial and cervical cancer assessment, from detection to recurrent disease evaluation. Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignant tumor of the female genital tract i...

    Authors: María Milagros Otero-García, Alicia Mesa-Álvarez, Olivera Nikolic, Patricia Blanco-Lobato, Marijana Basta-Nikolic, Rafael Menéndez de Llano-Ortega, Laura Paredes-Velázquez, Nikola Nikolic and Magda Szewczyk-Bieda

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:19

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  37. Content type: Pictorial Review

    Pulmonary embolus (PE) is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death with more than 600,000 cases occurring in the USA per year. About 45% of patients with acute PE will have acute right ventricular f...

    Authors: Yolanda C. Bryce, Rocio Perez-Johnston, Errol B. Bryce, Behrang Homayoon and Ernesto G. Santos-Martin

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:18

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  38. Content type: Original Article

    Melioidosis being an important cause of community-acquired sepsis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in the tropical and subtropical countries, is often underreported or misinterpreted on imaging investigations...

    Authors: Hannah L. Khiangte, Leena Robinson Vimala, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Binesh Lal Yesudhason and Reka Karuppusami

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:17

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