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Table 1 Key MRI findings for the diagnosis of localized disorders of the fasciae

From: Fasciae of the musculoskeletal system: MRI findings in trauma, infection and neoplastic diseases

Diagnosis Key MRI findings
Morel-Lavallée lesion • Fusiform or ovoid fluid collection
• Located at the interface between the hypodermic fat and the deep peripheral fascia
Myofascial and myotendinous injuries • Loss of the normal organization of the muscles and fasciae with abnormal heterogenous intermediate signal intensity
• Inconstant collections of fluid and/or blood
• Located at the interface between the muscle and the epimysium (myofascial injuries) and the interface between the muscle and the tendon (myotendinous injuries)
Muscle hernia • Focal bulging of the muscle tissue out of the muscle compartment into the hypodermic fat
• Interruption of the deep peripheral fascia is inconstantly observed
Non-necrotizing and necrotizing cellulitis • Infiltration of the hypodermis with fluid-signal intensity and enhancement after contrast material injection
• May be associated with collections and lack of enhancement of the hypodermis due to poor vascularization and/or necrosis (necrotizing cellulitis)
Necrotizing fasciitis • Thickening of the deep fasciae with high signal intensity on fluid-sensitive sequences and heterogeneous enhancement after contrast material injection
• Low signal intensity areas visible on all sequences suggestive of gas (highly specific but not sensitive)
• Extensive thickening of the intermuscular fasciae with an appearance suggesting incomplete vascularization supports the diagnosis
Palmar fibromatosis • Nodules in continuity with the palmar aponeurosis
• Diagnosis is usually clinical
Plantar fibromatosis • Nodule in continuity with the plantar aponeurosis
• May be multiple and bilateral