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Table 1 Axillary findings

From: A practical approach to imaging the axilla

  Benign Malignant
Skin and subcutaneous tissues Seborrheic keratosis, sebaceous cyst, epidermoid inclusion cyst Skin metastases, melanoma
Accessory breast tissue Fibroadenoma, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), fibrocystic change Breast cancer
Lymph node enlargement Hyperplasia/reactive node, HIV/immunocompromised state, granulomatous disease-sarcoidosis, lymphoma/leukaemia, Castleman’s disease Primary breast malignancy, metastatic disease (breast, lung, ovarian, gastric, melanoma)
Lymph node calcifications/punctuate densities Granulomatous disease, gold therapy (rheumatoid arthritis treatment) Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), metastatic disease [thyroid (papillary), ovarian]
Post-operative findings Skin thickening, lymphoedema, post-operative fluid collections/lymphocele, fat necrosis, abscess, haematoma Primary or metastatic recurrence
Neoplasms Granular cell tumour, schwannoma Primary breast cancer