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Table 7 Radiological Follow-up after Image-Guided Percutaneous Lung Ablation

From: Image-guided percutaneous ablation for the treatment of lung malignancies: current state of the art

  After-treatment-phase Early-Phase Intermediate-phase Late-phase
Successful treatment Consolidative center surrounded by a peripheral ground-glass area > 5 mm The peripheral ground-glass opacity evolves into a thin consolidative area
The resulting consolidation is typically more extensive than the original tumor
Progressive decrease in the size of the treated area
Persistence of a benign periablational enhancement, yet less than the original tumor
Three to six months after ablation: stability in size. After six months: progressive decrease in size
Increased enhancement compared to previous phases may exist
Unsuccessful treatment Irregular peripheral nodular enhancement within the consolidative center Excessive growth of the treated area
Irregular and peripheral enhancement or within central consolidation
PET/TC: solitary focal or peripheral FDG uptake or combined with a focal uptake at the consolidative center Enlargement of the treated area after the first three months that persists beyond six months
Any FDG uptake suggests recurrence
  1. After-Treatment-Phase: < 24 h; Early-Phase: 24 h to 1 month; Intermediate-Phase: 1 to 3 months; Late-Phase: > 3 months; PET/TC: Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography; FDG: fluorodeoxyglucose