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Table 5 Detriment-adjusted risks for adults of reproductive age caused by AP pelvic radiography

From: Gonad shielding in pelvic radiography: modern optimised X-ray systems might allow its discontinuation

YearOrigin of data at basis of calculationTotal risk X-ray without shieldingaTotal risk X-ray with shieldingbReduction risk by shielding gonadsc
MalesFemalesMalesFemalesMalesFemales
per 106per 106per 106per 106per 106per 106
1905Beck, Biddle, Albers-Sch107534130830776735
1958Janker, Lincoln116473941775.6
2010“European” DRLd (RP180)40231719233.3
2017Dutch target DRLd20118.59.7121.7
2018MUMC+8.65.44.04.64.60.77
  1. a Using abbreviations R = detriment-adjusted risk, E = effective dose and H = equivalent dose, the risk was approximated as Rmale = 5.5 × 10−2 × {E − 0.04 × (HTestes + HOvaries)} + 5.4 × 10−3 × Htestes and analogously for females. Applied for instance to “1958 males without shielding”, this gives Rmale = 5.5 × 10−2 × {1.32 × 10−3 − 0.04 × (15 × 10−3 + 2.1 × 10−3)} + 5.4 × 10−3 × 15 × 10−3 = 116 × 10−6. Note that we used data from Table 3 and that the equivalent dose equals the absorbed dose multiplied by the relative biological effectiveness of the radiation causing the absorbed dose. For X-rays, this factor is 1 Sv/Gy, so absorbed and equivalent dose are numerically equal
  2. b With gonad shielding, the last term in Rmale is modified into: 5.4 × 10−3 × (1 − GS) × HTestes, with GS the shielding factor of 0.95 for males. Analogously for females, but with GS = 0.5
  3. c Decrease in total risk resulting from the reduction in hereditary (“gonad”) risk by shielding
  4. d Most common European DRL, i.e. KAP = 3.0 Gy cm2; Dutch target DRL is KAP = 1.5 Gy m2