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Table 3 Mean dose data AP pelvic radiograph in absence of gonad shielding

From: Gonad shielding in pelvic radiography: modern optimised X-ray systems might allow its discontinuation

YearSource of dataESAK (mGy)KAP (Gy cm2)Effective dose (ICRP 103) (mSv)Absorbed dose
Testesa (mGy)Ovariesa (mGy)
1905Beck, Biddle, Albers-Sch.b34117311.414913
1958Janker, Lincolnb2515.41.32152.1
2010“European” DRLc5.43.00.524.51.2
2017Dutch target DRLd2.71.50.262.30.61
2018MUMC+0.820.550.0950.740.24
 Dose 2018/Dose19050.22%0.26%0.86%0.48%2.0%
  1. ESAK entrance surface air kerma which includes backscatter (dose in air but on the skin) [61], KAP product of kerma free in air and area of primary X-ray beam, DRL diagnostic reference level
  2. aWith optimal shielding, these doses might be reduced by about 95% and 50%, respectively
  3. bPulsed voltages were used. The equivalent DC voltage was calculated on the basis of effective dose in the same way as kV peak was converted to DC-kV on the basis of kerma free in air [61]
  4. cMost common DRL in Europe (KAP = 3.0 Gy cm2) [70]
  5. dConservative Dutch target DRL (KAP = 1.5 Gy cm2) [74]