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Table 2 Current options for image-guided localisation of nonpalpable breast lesions

From: Image-guided breast biopsy and localisation: recommendations for information to women and referring physicians by the European Society of Breast Imaging

MethodNotes
Carbon markingOld method; however, needing specific local experience. Surgery up to 1 month after. If not removed, it can mimic malignancy.
Wire localisationMostly used. Surgery at the same day or the day after. Possible vasovagal reactions, wire rupture or migration.
Radio-guided localisationSpecific local experience is required. Surgery within 24 h after. Radiation exposure (low-dose). Higher cost than wire localisation.
Radioactive seed localisationSpecific local experience is required. Interval time from procedure to surgery possibly longer than with radio-guided localisation. Radiation exposure (low-dose). Higher cost than wire localisation.
Magnetic seed localisationRecently introduced. Specific local experience is required. Surgery up to 1 month after. Higher cost than radio-guided and radioactive seed localisation. Magnetic seeds to be completely removed to avoid artefacts in breast magnetic resonance imaging examinations.