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Table 1 Representative non-neoplastic pathology of the thoracic inlet based on the mnemonic “VINDICATE”

From: Non-neoplastic pathology at the crossroads between neck imaging and cardiothoracic imaging

CategoryExamples
VascularAberrant right subclavian artery, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR), internal jugular venous thrombosis, vasculitis
Infectious/inflammatoryLemierre’s syndrome, mediastinitis, esophagitis
NeurologicTraction injury of the brachial plexus/brachial plexopathy, perineural cyst/Tarlov cyst, laryngeal nerve injury
DegenerativeEsophageal diverticulum (Zenker’s, Killian-Jamieson), tracheal diverticulum, musculoskeletal degenerative changes (cervical osteophytosis, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), disc herniation
IatrogenicTracheoesophageal fistula, radiation therapy, esophageal tear
CongenitalTracheobronchomegaly, dilated thoracic duct, branchial cleft cyst, narrowed thoracic inlet, fibromatosis colli, aberrant right subclavian artery, PAPVR
AutoimmuneHashimoto’s thyroiditis, systemic sclerosis causing esophageal dilatation, antiphospholipid syndrome causing thrombosis, thymic hyperplasia
TraumaticBlunt or penetrating trauma causing injuries to the esophagus, trachea, vasculature, nerves, muscles, bones, and soft tissues. Examples include pneumomediastinum, sternocleidomastoid muscle hematoma
EndocrineThyroid goiter, parathyroid hyperplasia, Madelung disease