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Table 1 Co-relation between Seddon’s & Sunderland’s classification of nerve injury with imaging findings

From: A panorama of radial nerve pathologies- an imaging diagnosis: a step ahead

Seddon Sunderland Description MRI Ultrasound
Neuropraxia I Conduction block T2 hyperintensity Decreased nerve echogenicity (hypoechoic)
Axonotmesis II Discontinuity of the axon with Wallerian degeneration T2 hyperintensity with increased size.
Hyperintensity in muscles due to denervation.
Decreased echogenicity and increased calibre of the nerve
  III Scarring of the endoneurium Endoneurium can not be delineated with current MR technique.
T2 hyperintensity with increased size.
Hyperintensity in muscles due to denervation.
Focal decrease in echogenicity with increase in calibre with change in echotexture of the affected muscles.
  IV Neuroma in continuity with formation of a scar which blocks nerve regeneration T1 hypointense, T2 hyperintense focal enlargement with loss of fascicular pattern.
Hyperintensity in muscles due to denervation.
Hypoechoic fusiform lesion in continuity with the nerve with loss of fascicular architecture with altered echogenicity of denervated muscles.
Neurotmesis V Rupture of the nerve End neuroma formation at proximal end with denervation changes in muscle Hypoechoic neuroma at proximal end with local soft-tissue oedema and denervation changes in muscle.
  Mackinnon and Dellon type VI Mixed injury Variable findings with nerve heterogeneity and muscle denervation changes Hypoechoic enlarged with mixed findings of scarring, discontinuity or neuroma formation.