An adversarial example demonstrated by Goodfellow et al. . A network classified the object in the left image as a “panda” with 57.7% confidence. By adding a very small amount of carefully constructed noise (middle image), the network misclassified the object as a “gibbon” with 99.3% confidence on the right image without a visible change to a human. Reprinted with permission from “Explaining and harnessing adversarial examples” by Goodfellow et al.