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  1. Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase lesion detection and improve disease characterization for many cerebral pathologies investigated with MRI. These agents, introduced in the late 1980s, are in w...

    Authors: Anna Falk Delgado, Danielle Van Westen, Markus Nilsson, Linda Knutsson, Pia C. Sundgren, Elna-Marie Larsson and Alberto Falk Delgado

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:84

    Content type: Critical Review

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  2. Left ventricular papillary muscles are small myocardial structures that play an important role in the functioning of mitral valve and left ventricle. Typically, there are two groups of papillary muscles, namel...

    Authors: Prabhakar Rajiah, Nicholas Lim Fulton and Michael Bolen

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:83

    Content type: Educational Review

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  3. Clinical manifestations of liver transplantation complications can be subtle and non-specific. Medical imaging, mainly Doppler ultrasound, plays an important role to detect and grade these. Colour Doppler ultr...

    Authors: Juan-José Delgado-Moraleda, Carmen Ballester-Vallés and Luis Marti-Bonmati

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:78

    Content type: Educational Review

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  4. Primary myelofibrosis is a chronic clonal stem cell disorder that results in a build-up of marrow fibrosis and dysfunction, hypermetabolic states, and myeloid metaplasia. The clinical and radiological conseque...

    Authors: Sheng Fei Oon, Dalveer Singh, Teng Han Tan, Allan Lee, Geertje Noe, Kate Burbury and Joseph Paiva

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:71

    Content type: Educational Review

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  5. Charcot foot refers to an inflammatory pedal disease based on polyneuropathy; the detailed pathomechanism of the disease is still unclear. Since the most common cause of polyneuropathy in industrialized countr...

    Authors: Andrea B. Rosskopf, Christos Loupatatzis, Christian W. A. Pfirrmann, Thomas Böni and Martin C. Berli

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:77

    Content type: Educational Review

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  6. We reviewed technical parameters, acquisition protocols and adverse reactions (ARs) for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). A systematic search in databases, including MEDLINE/EMBASE, was performed ...

    Authors: Moreno Zanardo, Andrea Cozzi, Rubina Manuela Trimboli, Olgerta Labaj, Caterina Beatrice Monti, Simone Schiaffino, Luca Alessandro Carbonaro and Francesco Sardanelli

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:76

    Content type: Critical Review

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  7. Accessory anatomical structures in the ankle and foot usually represent incidental imaging findings; however, they may also eventually represent a source of pathology, such as painful syndromes, degenerative c...

    Authors: Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Francisco Aparisi, Alessandra Bartoloni, Maria Alejandra Ferrando Fons, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi and Alberto Bazzocchi

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:74

    Content type: Educational Review

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  8. Accessory anatomical structures in the ankle and foot usually represent incidental imaging findings; however, they may also eventually represent a source of pathology, such as painful syndromes, degenerative c...

    Authors: Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Francisco Aparisi, Alessandra Bartoloni, Maria Alejandra Ferrando Fons, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi and Alberto Bazzocchi

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:69

    Content type: Educational Review

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  9. Brown tumours do not represent neoplastic process, but they are focal bony lesions due to bone remodelling from either primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism. Their incidence is also low. The current literat...

    Authors: Cheng Xie, Maria Tsakok, Nia Taylor and Karen Partington

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:75

    Content type: Educational Review

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  10. Spondyloarthritis has two hallmark features: active inflammation and structural lesions with new bone formation. MRI is well suited to assess active inflammation, but there is increasing interest in the role o...

    Authors: Frederiek Laloo, Nele Herregods, Jacob L. Jaremko, Philippe Carron, Dirk Elewaut, Filip Van den Bosch, Koenraad Verstraete and Lennart Jans

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:67

    Content type: Educational Review

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  11. The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) and General Medical Council (GMC) encourage learning from mistakes. But negative feedback can be a demoralising process with adverse implications for staff morale, clini...

    Authors: Andrew Koo and Jonathan T. Smith

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:68

    Content type: Original Article

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  12. Cigarettes are well-recognized risk factors responsible for the emergence of a variety of pathologic conditions affecting both the airways and the lungs. Smoking-related lung diseases can be classified as chro...

    Authors: Célia Sousa, Márcio Rodrigues, André Carvalho, Bárbara Viamonte, Rui Cunha, Susana Guimarães, Conceição Souto de Moura, António Morais and José Miguel Pereira

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:73

    Content type: Educational Review

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  13. Gaucher disease is an inherited metabolic disorder resulting in deficiency of lysosomal enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase causing the accumulation of abnormal macrophages (“Gaucher cells”) within multiple organs, mo...

    Authors: Andrew J. Degnan, Victor M. Ho-Fung, Rebecca C. Ahrens-Nicklas, Christian A. Barrera, Suraj D. Serai, Dah-Jyuu Wang and Can Ficicioglu

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:70

    Content type: Critical Review

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  14. Liposarcomas are the most common soft tissue sarcoma. They occur mainly in the thigh or retroperitoneum. Due to their size, lipomatous tumours can herniate either through the abdominal wall or in the groin. Th...

    Authors: Kirsten van Langevelde, Christine Azzopardi, Gareth Kiernan, Max Gibbons, Zsolt Orosz and James Teh

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:66

    Content type: Educational Review

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  15. Patellar maltracking occurs as a result of an imbalance in the dynamic relationship between the patella and trochlea. This is often secondary to an underlying structural abnormality. The clinical evaluation ca...

    Authors: Zaid Jibri, Paul Jamieson, Kawan S. Rakhra, Marcos L. Sampaio and Geoffrey Dervin

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:65

    Content type: Educational Review

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  16. During the last decade, the management of acute ischemic stroke has changed dramatically, from an expectant bedside “wait and see” attitude towards active treatment, thanks to the continuous improvement of new...

    Authors: Thijs van der Zijden, Annelies Mondelaers, Laetitia Yperzeele, Maurits Voormolen and Paul M. Parizel

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:64

    Content type: Critical Review

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  17. In the healthy patient, blood returns to the heart via classic venous pathways. Obstruction of any one of these pathways will result in blood flow finding new collateral pathways to return to the heart. Althou...

    Authors: Thomas J. Marini, Komal Chughtai, Zachary Nuffer, Susan K. Hobbs and Katherine Kaproth-Joslin

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:63

    Content type: Educational Review

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  18. To provide clinical validation of a recent 2D SENSE-based accelerated cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) sequence (accelerated k-t SENSE), investigating whether this technique accurately quantifies left v...

    Authors: Antonildes Nascimento Assuncao-Jr, Roberto Nery Dantas-Jr, Renata Margarida do Val, Priscilla Gianotto, Angela dos Santos Marin, Mark Golden, Marco Antonio Gutierrez, Jose Rodrigues Parga and Cesar Higa Nomura

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:62

    Content type: Original Article

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  19. In the current era of breast imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an important role. To get its specificity better, some supporting or cooperative tools might be needed. The search for new methods con...

    Authors: Irmak Durur-Subasi

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:61

    Content type: Educational Review

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  20. The majority of soft tissue lesions in the foot and ankle are benign. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of th...

    Authors: Peter Hughes, Rhian Miranda and Anthony J. Doyle

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:60

    Content type: Pictorial Review

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  21. Total mesorectal excision has been the most effective treatment strategy adopted to reduce local recurrence rates among patients with rectal cancer. The morbidity associated with this radical surgical procedur...

    Authors: Cinthia D. Ortega and Rodrigo O. Perez

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:59

    Content type: Educational Review

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  22. Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive, rapidly growing B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which manifests in several subtypes including sporadic, endemic, and immunodeficiency-associated forms. Pathologically...

    Authors: Kevin Kalisz, Francesco Alessandrino, Rose Beck, Daniel Smith, Elias Kikano, Nikhil H. Ramaiya and Sree Harsha Tirumani

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:56

    Content type: Educational Review

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  23. To determine the frequency, morphologic and demographic characteristics, and clinical relevance of the mineralisation of six skull base ligaments (interclinoid, caroticoclinoid, petrosphenoid, posterior petroc...

    Authors: Philip Touska, Sultana Hasso, Alp Oztek, Fungayi Chinaka and Steve E. J. Connor

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:55

    Content type: Original Article

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  24. In Luxembourg, the frequency of CT and MRI examinations per inhabitant is among the highest in Europe. A national audit was conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of CT and MRI examinations according to the...

    Authors: Aurélien Bouëtté, Alexandra Karoussou-Schreiner, Hubert Ducou Le Pointe, Martijn Grieten, Eric de Kerviler, Léon Rausin, Jean-Christophe Bouëtté and Patrick Majerus

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:54

    Content type: Original Article

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  25. Cancer cells can escape the immune system by different mechanisms. The evasion of cancer cells from immune surveillance is prevented by immune checkpoint inhibitors, allowing the patient’s own immune system to...

    Authors: B. M. Aarts, E. G. Klompenhouwer, S. L. Rice, F. Imani, T. Baetens, A. Bex, S. Horenblas, M. Kok, J. B. A. G. Haanen, R. G. H. Beets-Tan and F. M. Gómez

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:53

    Content type: Review

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  26. Down syndrome (DS), or trisomy 21, is the leading genetic cause of intellectual incapacity worldwide, with a reported incidence of about 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 1,100 live births. Besides the several commonly known...

    Authors: Marta Rodrigues, Joana Nunes, Sofia Figueiredo, António Martins de Campos and Ana Filipa Geraldo

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:52

    Content type: Pictorial Review

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  27. The recently implemented European Council Basic Safety and Standards Directive (BSSD), 2013/59/Euratom lays down core radiation protection standards for European radiology departments, with a mandatory require...

    Authors:

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:50

    Content type: Statement

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  28. To outline the current status of and provide insight into possible future research on the breast lesion excision system (BLES) as a diagnostic and therapeutic device.

    Authors: Wendelien B. G. Sanderink, Babette I. Laarhuis, Luc J. A. Strobbe, Ioannis Sechopoulos, Peter Bult, Nico Karssemeijer and Ritse M. Mann

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:49

    Content type: Critical Review

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  29. Adenomyosis is a challenging clinical condition that is commonly being diagnosed in women of reproductive age. To date, many aspects of the disease have not been fully understood, making management increasingl...

    Authors: Riham Dessouky, Sherif A. Gamil, Mohamad Gamal Nada, Rola Mousa and Yasmine Libda

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:48

    Content type: Educational Review

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  30. The fascial system is a continuum of connective tissues present everywhere throughout the body that can be locally involved in a large variety of disorders. These disorders include traumatic disorders (Morel-L...

    Authors: Thomas Kirchgesner, Cédric Tamigneaux, Souad Acid, Vasiliki Perlepe, Frédéric Lecouvet, Jacques Malghem and Bruno Vande Berg

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:47

    Content type: Pictorial Review

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  31. Central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (CNS-PTLD) is a rare disease that presents with non-specific signs and symptoms. The purpose of this article is to present the imaging appear...

    Authors: Matthew L. White, Drew W. Moore, Yan Zhang, Keiper D. Mark, Timothy C. Greiner and Philip J. Bierman

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:46

    Content type: Pictorial Review

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  32. The elbow is a complex joint whose stability is imparted by osseous and soft-tissue constraints. Anatomical and biomechanical knowledge of the supporting structures that provide stability to the medial and lat...

    Authors: José Acosta Batlle, Luis Cerezal, María Dolores López Parra, Beatriz Alba, Santiago Resano and Javier Blázquez Sánchez

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:43

    Content type: Pictorial Review

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  33. The pericardium could be involved in a variety of clinical disorders. The imaging findings are not specific for an individual pathology in most of the cases; however, patient’s clinical history may guide radio...

    Authors: Emre Ünal, Musturay Karcaaltincaba, Erhan Akpinar and Orhan Macit Ariyurek

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:42

    Content type: Pictorial Review

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  34. Ventral hernia repair with or without mesh placement is a commonly done procedure. Laparoscopic approach is more preferred than open in recent surgical practice. Complications occur as like any other abdominal...

    Authors: Aruna R. Patil, Shrivalli Nandikoor, Himansu Shekar Mohanty, Satyajit Godhi and Ravishankar Bhat

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:40

    Content type: Pictorial Review

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  35. To derive conversions of antiquated exposure data into modern equivalents and to apply these in the assessment of the skin dose of pelvic radiographs since 1896.

    Authors: Gerrit J. Kemerink, Gerhard Kütterer, Pierre J. Kicken, Jos M. A. van Engelshoven, Kees J. Simon and Joachim E. Wildberger

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:39

    Content type: Original Article

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  36. The portal vein (PV) is the main vessel of the portal venous system (PVS), which drains the blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen to the liver. There are several variants aff...

    Authors: Carolina Carneiro, Jorge Brito, Carlos Bilreiro, Marta Barros, Carla Bahia, Inês Santiago and Filipe Caseiro-Alves

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:38

    Content type: Pictorial Review

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  37. Glioblastoma (GB) contains diverse histologic regions. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values are surrogates for the degree of number of cells within the tumour regions. Because an assessment of ADC value...

    Authors: Coral Durand-Muñoz, Eduardo Flores-Alvarez, Sergio Moreno-Jimenez and Ernesto Roldan-Valadez

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:36

    Content type: Original Article

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  38. Declining rates of consent for standard perinatal autopsy has led to a rise in interest for postmortem imaging as an alternative, non-invasive method for investigation of childhood and perinatal deaths. Whilst...

    Authors: Susan C. Shelmerdine, Neil J. Sebire and Owen J. Arthurs

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:35

    Content type: Educational Review

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  39. The human body has 12 pairs of cranial nerves that control motor and sensory functions of the head and neck. The anatomy of cranial nerves is complex and its knowledge is crucial to detect pathological alterat...

    Authors: Nicola Romano, Margherita Federici and Antonio Castaldi

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:33

    Content type: Pictorial Review

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  40. The European Society of Radiology (ESR) considers the use of evidence-based referral guidelines in clinical practice essential to ensure the appropriate utilisation of medical imaging for patients. Since 2014,...

    Authors:

    Citation: Insights into Imaging 2019 10:32

    Content type: Guideline

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