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Table 1 Patient demographics and breast lesion characteristics

From: Deep learning based on ultrasound images assists breast lesion diagnosis in China: a multicenter diagnostic study

Characteristic Training set Internal test set External test sets
Benign, n (%) Malignant, n (%) p value Benign, n (%) Malignant, n (%) p value Benign, n (%) Malignant, n (%) p value
Mean age (range) (y) 43.67 ± 13.14 (10–90)   43.21 ± 13.65 (16–85)   44.91 ± 12.06 (17–80)  
Mean size (range) (cm) 1.84 ± 0.99 (0.30–7.46)   1.76 ± 0.94 (0.40–6.80)   2.05 ± 1.08 (0.35–7.00)  
Patients (n) 2724 1425   305 161   191 206  
Images (n) 6574 4904   728 546   489 802  
Age (y) 38.99 ± 11.31 52.62 ± 11.70 0.000 38.78 ± 11.94 51.60 ± 12.75 0.000 39.07 ± 10.45 50.32 ± 10.89 0.000
 < 30 609 (22.36) 24 (1.68)   77 (25.24) 3 (1.86)   38 (19.90) 1 (0.49)  
 30–39 824 (30.25) 162 (11.37)   95 (31.15) 25 (15.53)   63 (32.98) 28 (13.59)  
 ≥ 40 1291 (47.39) 1239 (86.95)   133 (43.61) 133 (82.61)   90 (47.12) 177 (85.92)  
Age at menarche (y) 13.52 ± 1.50 14.32 ± 1.71 0.000 13.33 ± 1.67 14.32 ± 1.84 0.000 13.85 ± 1.61 14.21 ± 1.78 0.036
Age at first live childbirth (y) 25.21 ± 3.16 25.03 ± 3.51 0.044 25.38 ± 3.50 24.70 ± 3.39 0.056 26.27 ± 3.56 26.00 ± 3.00 0.457
BMI (kg/m2) 22.01 ± 3.05 23.64 ± 3.19 0.000 21.73 ± 2.95 23.21 ± 2.92 0.000 22.76 ± 3.32 24.81 ± 3.50 0.000
Maximum diameter (cm) 1.58 ± 0.87 2.34 ± 1.03 0.000 1.53 ± 0.79 2.19 ± 1.05 0.000 1.81 ± 1.03 2.26 ± 1.07 0.000
 ≤ 2 cm 2107 (77.35) 624 (43.79)   241 (79.02) 82 (50.93)   132 (69.11) 97 (47.09)  
 > 2 cm, ≤ 5 cm 597 (21.92) 775 (54.39)   62 (20.33) 76 (47.21)   58 (30.37) 105 (50.97)  
 > 5 cm 20 (0.73) 26 (1.82)   2 (0.65) 3 (1.86)   1 (0.52) 4 (1.94)  
Distance from nipple (cm) 2.48 ± 1.49 2.67 ± 1.57 0.000 2.44 ± 1.42 2.56 ± 1.52 0.364 2.63 ± 1.70 3.10 ± 1.69 0.006
Family history (first-degree relatives)   0.943    0.514    0.345  
 No 2660 (97.65) 1385 (97.19)   294 (96.39) 157 (97.52)   186 (94.41) 197 (94.98)  
 Yes 64 (2.35) 40 (2.81)   11 (3.61) 4 (2.48)   5 (5.59) 9 (5.02)  
History of benign breast disease   0.000    0.045    0.005  
 No 2552 (93.69) 1373 (96.35)   284 (93.11) 157 (97.52)   171 (89.53) 199 (96.60)  
 Yes 172 (6.31) 52 (3.65)   21 (6.89) 4 (2.48)   20 (10.47) 7 (3.40)  
Clinical symptom(s)    0.000    0.008    0.004
 No 675 (24.78) 136 (9.54)   76 (24.92) 23 (14.29)   78 (40.84) 56 (27.18)  
 Yes 2049 (75.22) 1289 (90.46)   229 (75.08) 138 (85.71)   113 (59.16) 150 (72.82)  
Position    0.130    0.486    0.513
 Left 1390 (50.03) 760 (53.33)   160 (52.46) 79 (49.07)   92 (48.17) 106 (51.46)  
 Right 1334 (48.97) 665 (46.67)   145 (47.54) 82 (50.93)   99 (51.83) 100 (48.54)  
  1. Data in parentheses are percentages
  2. BMI body mass index