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Table 1 Summary of studies using chest CT, 18F-FDG PET/CT, or MRI in asymptomatic contacts recently exposed to TB with normal radiographs

From: CT and 18F-FDG PET abnormalities in contacts with recent tuberculosis infections but negative chest X-ray

First author Year Country No. of contacts* (age range) No. of contacts with CT or PET abnormalities Bacterial/molecular Testing Anti-TB treatment Follow-up without anti-TB treatment/Developing TB during follow-up
Any Lung** parenchyma Mediastinal LN Tested Positive
Chest CT
Delacourt [13] 1993 France 15 (0–10 s) 9 [60%] 0 [0%] 9 [60%] Not separable Not described Not described
Duran [14] 1996 Spain 22 (0–10 s) 14 [64%] 4 [18%] 14 [64%] 8 4 [50%] Not described Not described
Katakura [15] 1999 Japan 4 (0 s) 4 [100%] 3 [75%] 1 [25%] 4 0 [0%] 4 [100%] None
Baghaie [16] 2005 Iran 64 (4–14) 25 [39%] Not separable Not separable Not described Not described
Yoshiyama [17] 2008 Japan 21 (20–40 s) 7 [33%] 7 [33%] 0 [0%] 7 1 [14%] 7 [100%] None
Lew [18] 2009 Korea 46 (16–20) 12 [26%] 12 [26%] 0 [0%] 11 0 [0%] 11 [92%] 1/1
Lee [19] 2010 Korea 39 (20 s) 9 [23%] 9 [23%] 0 [0%] 9 3 [33%] 9 [100%] None
Hirama [20] 2011 Japan 34 (adults) 4 [12%] 4 [12%] 0 [0%] Not described 4 [100%] None
Garrido [21] 2012 Spain 11 (< 4 years) 9 [81%] 7 [64%] 9[81%] 11 1 [9%] 11 [100%] None
Fujikawa [22] 2014 Japan 110 (20–50 s) 12 [11%] 12 [11%] 0 [0%] 12 3 [25%] 12 [100%] None
Catho [23] ‡‡ 2015 France 5 (child) 1 [20%] 1 [20%] 1 [20%] 1 1 [100%] 1 [100%] None
Lu [24] 2016 China 27 (10 s) 6 [22%] 6 [22%] 0 [0%] 6 0 [0%] 6 [100%] None
Ziemele [25] 2017 Latvia Unknown (0–17) 145 [unknown] Not separable 145 7 [5%] 145 [100%] None
Lee [26]‡‡† 2017 Korea 6 (30 s) 2 [33%] 2 [33%] 0 [0%] 2 0 [0%] 0 [0%] 2/1
Shimizu [27] 2017 Japan 52 (0–10 s) 10 [19%] Not separable 10 0 [0%] Not separable None
Moreno-Ballester [28] 2018 Spain 52 (0–10 s) 27 [52%] 17 [33%] 27 [52%] Not described 27 [52%] None
Yoshiyama [29] 2019 Japan 229 (10–80 s) 24 [10%] 24 [10%] 0 [0%] 24 7 [29%] 23 [96%] 1/follow-up loss at 3 mo
Zhou [30] 2019 China 59 (10 s) 51 [86%] Not separable Not separable 35 [69%] 15***/1
Yoon [31] ‡‡‡ 2020 Korea 17 (50–70 s) 14 [82%] 14 [82%] 0 [0%] Not described 0 [0%] 14/0
Wang [32] 2020 China 135 (10–60 s) 4 [3%] Not separable 4 0 [0%] 4 [100%] None
Mok [33] 2021 Korea 72 (adults) 14 [19%] 14 [19%] 0 [0%] 14 1 [7%] 0 [0%] 14***/1
18F-FDG PET/CT
Ghesani [34] 2014 USA 5 (20–40 s) 3 [60%]‡‡‡ 0 [0%] 3 [60%] Not described 0 [0%] 3***/0
Esmail [35]‡‡‡‡ 2016 UK 35 (20–30 s) 16 [46%] 10 [29%] 16 [46%] 16 0 [0%] 0 [0%] 16***/4
18F-FDG PET/MRI
Molton [36] 2019 Singapore 30 (0–50 s) 9 [30%] 4 [13%] 6 [20%] Not described 0 [0%] 9***/0
Naftalin [37] 2020 Singapore 3 (20–50 s) 2 [67%] 2 [67%] 2 [67%] Not described Not described Not described
  1. TB —tuberculosis; CT —computed tomography; 18F-FDG— 18-fluorodeoxyglucose; PET —positron emission tomography; MRI —magnetic resonance imaging
  2. Data in parentheses and brackets indicate age range and percentage, respectively
  3. *Contacts having symptoms or abnormal X-ray findings were not counted
  4. **CT abnormalities are pauci-nodular infiltrations in the lung parenchyma, not including healed TB sequelae
  5. ***LTBI treatment was applied to in part or entire contacts during the follow-up
  6. One contact with a 5-mm nodule developed active TB during follow-up. It was not clearly described whether the contact received LTBI treatment
  7. Seven of nine contacts showing CT abnormalities were reported to have cough or sputum
  8. ‡†Two of four patients treated with anti-TB medication turned out to have been misdiagnosed after the completion of treatment
  9. ‡‡Baseline CT was normal, but follow-up CT after 3 months revealed two consolidative lesions in the right inferior lobe with mediastinal lymphadenopathy
  10. ‡‡†One of the two contacts had a transient increase in pauci-nodular lesions, followed by a decrease during 1 year
  11. ‡‡‡Small noncalcified nodules spontaneously regressed in 2 of 14 patients after 1 year, whereas small noncalcified nodules remained stable in 12 of 14 patients
  12. ‡‡‡†We did not count one contact having 18F-PET/CT findings of healed TB
  13. ‡‡‡‡Eight of 10 contacts with subclinical lung abnormalities and 8 of 25 contacts without the abnormalities had metabolic uptakes in mediastinal LNs