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Fig. 3 | Insights into Imaging

Fig. 3

From: The current role and future directions of imaging in failed back surgery syndrome patients: an educational review

Fig. 3

Lumbar spine CT images in an FBSS patient with an implanted spinal cord stimulation system. AC Sagittal reconstructions through the vertebral column as depicted by the axial miniature on the right-hand side. The spinal cord stimulation electrode can be observed lining the ventral aspect of the dorsal lamina on level Th12–L1. Sclerosis of L5 and S1 can be observed. Additionally, at level L5–S1, bilateral laminectomy has been carried out. D Three-dimensional reconstructions of the spine of the same FBSS patient. The connection of the extension cables to the internalized pulse generator can be appreciated in blue at level L3–L4. E Virtually dissected three-dimensional model of the spine of the same FBSS patient. The spinal cord stimulation electrode can be appreciated as multiple blue dots in the spinal canal. The extension cable can be followed into the paraspinal space

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