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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients according to the presence or absence of adverse outcomes

From: Impact of diagnostic errors on adverse outcomes: learning from emergency department revisits with repeat CT or MRI

Characteristics All patients AO group Non-AO group P
No. of patients 1054 199 (18.9%) 855 (81.1%)  
Age (years)a 56.0 ± 15.7 57.9 ± 14.6 55.5 ± 15.9 .05
Sex, maleb 532 (50.5%) 112 (56.3%) 420 (49.1%) .07
Comorbiditiesb
Malignancy 365 (34.6%) 96 (48.2%) 269 (31.5%) < .001
DM 203 (9.3%) 38 (19.1%) 165 (19.3%) .95
CAD 95 (9.0%) 22 (11.1%) 73 (8.5%) .26
CKD 54 (5.1%) 8 (4.0%) 46 (5.4%) .43
Asthma 30 (2.8%) 3 (1.5%) 27 (3.2%) .34
COPD 25 (2.4%) 8 (4.0%) 17 (2.0%) .09
Revisit timingb     .74
Early (≤ 72 h) 546 (51.8%) 101 (50.8%) 445 (52.0%)  
Late (72 h–7 days) 508 (48.2%) 98 (49.2%) 410 (48.0%)  
Diagnostic error status at index visitb     < .001
1. Radiologic errors 121 (11.5%) 51 (25.6%) 70 (8.2%) < .001
Misdiagnoses 59 (5.6%) 31 (15.6%) 28 (3.3%) < .001
D-RT 62 (5.9%) 20 (10.1%) 42 (4.9%) .006
2. Clinician errors 110 (10.4%) 26 (13.1%) 84 (9.8%) .18
3. Non-errors 823 (78.1%) 122 (61.3%) 701 (82.0%) < .001
Disease categories at index visitb     < .001
1. Neurologic diseases 309 (29.3%) 44 (22.1%) 265 (31.0%) .01
2. Digestive diseases 159 (15.1%) 45 (22.6%) 114 (13.3%) .001
3. Neoplasms 150 (14.2%) 51 (25.6%) 99 (11.6%) < .001
4. Traumatic injuries 99 (9.4%) 6 (3.0%) 93 (10.9%) < .001
5. Respiratory diseases 50 (4.7%) 10 (5.0%) 40 (4.7%) .84
6. Genitourinary diseases 42 (4.0%) 5 (2.5%) 37 (4.3%) .24
7. Infection 38 (3.6%) 5 (2.5%) 33 (3.9%) .36
8. Circulatory diseases 29 (2.8%) 13 (6.5%) 16 (1.9%) < .001
9. Healthcare-related complications 17 (1.6%) 6 (3.0%) 11 (1.3%) .08
10. Other diseases 161 (15.3%) 14 (7.0%) 147 (17.2%) < .001
(1) Mental or behavioral disorder 27 (2.6%) 2 (1.0%) 25 (2.9%) .14
(2) Musculoskeletal or connective tissue diseases 15 (1.4%) 5 (2.5%) 10 (1.2%) .15
(3) Visual and ear diseases 15 (1.4%) 2 (1.0%) 13 (1.5%) .75
(4) Endocrine or metabolic diseases 12 (1.1%) 2 (1.0%) 10 (1.2%) 1.0
(5) Hematologic diseases 2 (0.2%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.2%) 1.0
(6) Immune system diseases 2 (0.2%) 1 (0.5%) 1 (0.1%) .34
(7) Skin diseases 2 (0.2%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.2%) 1.0
(8) Non-diagnostic conditions 86 (8.2%) 2 (1.0%) 84 (9.8%) < .001
Patient disposition at revisitb     < .001
Admission 530 (50.3%) 171 (85.9%) 359 (42.0%) < .001
Discharge 480 (45.5%) 21 (10.6%) 459 (53.7%) < .001
Transfer 42 (4.0%) 5 (2.5%) 37 (4.3%) .24
Death in the ED 2 (0.2%) 2 (1.0%) 0 (0.0%) .04
Conditions of adverse outcomesb     
Delayed operation 103 (9.8%) 103 (51.8%) N/A  
30-day in-hospital mortality 69 (6.5%) 69 (34.7%) N/A  
ICU admission 61 (5.8%) 61 (30.7%) N/A  
  1. aData are mean ± SD
  2. bData are number of patients, with percentages in parentheses. The sum of percentages may not be exactly 100% owing to rounding
  3. CAD, Coronary artery disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; AO, adverse outcome; ED, emergency department; D-RT, delayed radiology reporting time; N/A, not applicable; ICU, intensive care unit