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Table 4 Risk factors for WHO/ISUP nuclear grade of CCRCC according to univariate and multivariate analysis

From: Machine learning-based CT radiomics approach for predicting WHO/ISUP nuclear grade of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: an exploratory and comparative study

Characteristics Kappa value Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value
Tumor size 0.875 7.845 3.652–12.355  < 0.001 0.992 0.852–1.155 0.918
Hematuria 0.867 2.106 11.082–4.101 0.026 1.145 0.482–2.720 0.758
Distant metastasis 0.831 - 0.999
Intratumoral necrosis 0.854 4.465 2.543–7.838  < 0.001 2.745 1.424–5.292 0.003
Calcification 0.905 4.502 1.965–10.311  < 0.001 4.293 1.629–11.314 0.003
Violation of renal capsule 0.814 5.092 2.854–9.086  < 0.001 1.642 1.642–3.446 0.190
Angiogenesis 0.779 11.486 5.766–22.879  < 0.001 3.805 1.741–8.313 0.001
Venous invasion 0.923 16.400 3.336–80.624  < 0.001 4.037 0.663–24.583 0.130
Perinephric metastasis 0.867 7.849 3.989–15.446  < 0.001 3.032 1.283–7.168 0.011