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Table 3 Clinical and radiological characteristics between three cohorts

From: Machine learning-based CT radiomics approach for predicting WHO/ISUP nuclear grade of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: an exploratory and comparative study

Characteristics Training cohort Validation cohort Testing cohort t value or χ2-value p value
Full cohort, n (%)      
406 (100%) 227 (55.9%) 57 (14.1%) 122 (30.0%)
Clinical characteristics      
Age (years) 57.52 ± 11.97 56.40 ± 10.84 57.90 ± 12.93 0.30 0.72
Gender, n (%)      
 Male 136 (59.9%) 32 (56.1%) 72 (59.0%) 0.27 0.87
 Female 91 (40.1%) 25 (43.9%) 50 (41.0%)   
BMI (kg/m2) 24.21 ± 3.75 24.12 ± 3.35 24.56 ± 4.87 0.35 0.71
Smoking history, n (%) 75 (33.0%) 15 (26.3%) 45 (36.9%) 1.97 0.37
Hypertension, n (%) 79 (34.8%) 20 (35.1%) 48 (39.3%) 0.75 0.69
Diabetes, n (%) 30 (13.2%) 9 (15.8%) 23 (18.9%) 1.96 0.38
Tumor location, n (%)      
 Left 123 (54.2%) 24 (42.1%) 68 (55.7%) 3.69 0.16
 Right 104 (45.8%) 33 (57.9%) 54 (44.3%)   
Operative method, n (%)      
 Partial 120 (52.9%) 34 (59.6%) 58 (47.5%) 2.37 0.31
 Radical 107 (47.1%) 23 (40.4%) 64 (52.5%)   
Hematuria, n (%) 22 (9.7%) 10 (17.5%) 17 (13.9%) 3.22 0.20
Flank pain, n (%) 32 (14.1%) 7 (12.3%) 24 (19.7%) 2.41 0.30
Distant Metastasis, n (%) 1 (0.4%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.8%) 0.56 0.76
Imaging characteristics      
Tumor size (cm) 4.48 ± 2.24 4.48 ± 2.40 4.58 ± 2.35 0.083 0.92
Necrosis, n (%) 107 (47.1%) 30 (52.6%) 55 (45.1%) 0.89 0.64
Cystic Degeneration, n (%) 23 (10.2%) 6 (10.5%) 10 (8.2%) 0.42 0.81
Calcification, n (%) 15 (6.6%) 3 (5.3%) 6 (4.9%) 0.46 0.80
Violation of the Renal Capsule, n (%) 44 (19.4%) 3 (5.3%) * 17 (13.9%) 7.28 0.026
Angiogenesis, n (%) 137 (60.4%) 33 (57.9%) 80 (65.6%) 1.29 0.52
Venous invasion, n (%) 7 (3.1%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (1.6%) 2.27 0.32
Perinephric Metastasis, n (%) 27 (11.9%) 4 (7.0%) 11 (9.0%) 1.50 0.47
  1. * p < 0.05 for the comparison with patients in the training set