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Table 2 Comparison of demographic and radiological characteristics between high- and low-grade CCRCCs

From: Machine learning-based CT radiomics approach for predicting WHO/ISUP nuclear grade of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: an exploratory and comparative study

Characteristics Training cohort Validation cohort Testing cohort
Low-grade High-grade t value or χ2-value p value Low-grade High-grade t value or χ 2-value p value Low-grade High-grade t value or χ2-value p value
Full cohort, n (%)             
406 (100%) 184 (45.3%) 43 (10.6%) 46 (11.3%) 11 (2.7%) 100 (24.6%) 22 (5.4%)
Age (years) 56.87 ± 12.09 60.33 ± 11.13 2.93 0.088 55.63 ± 10.74 59.64 ± 11.17 1.22 0.28 58.25 ± 12.19 56.32 ± 16.14 0.40 0.53
Gender, n (%)             
Male 109 (59.2%) 27 (62.8%) 0.183 0.669 25 (54.3%) 7 (63.6%) 0.31 0.58 55 (55.0%) 17 (77.3%) 3.70 0.05
Female 75 (40.8%) 16 (37.2%)    21 (45.7%) 4 (36.4%)    45 (45.0%) 5 (22.7%)   
BMI (kg/m2) 24.25 ± 3.42 24.06 ± 5.00 0.087 0.768 24.18 ± 3.59 23.87 ± 2.19 0.08 0.78 24.93 ± 5.13 22.87 ± 2.96 3.30 0.07
Smoking history, n (%) 57 (31.0%) 18 (41.9%) 1.87 0.17 11 (23.9%) 4 (36.4%) 0.71 0.40 37 (37.0%) 8 (36.4%) 0.003 0.96
Hypertension, n (%) 67 (37.4%) 12 (27.9%) 1.11 0.29 17 (37.0%) 3 (27.3%) 0.37 0.55 41 (41.0%) 7 (31.8%) 0.64 0.43
Diabetes, n (%) 21 (11.4%) 9 (20.9%) 2.75 0.097 9 (19.6%) 0 (0.0%) 2.56 0.11 19 (19%) 4 (18.2%) 0.008 0.93
Tumor size (cm) 4.18 ± 1.86 5.76 ± 3.12 18.72  < 0.001 4.06 ± 2.37 6.23 ± 1.67 8.20 0.006 4.32 ± 2.15 5.75 ± 2.87 6.95 0.009
Tumor location, n (%)             
Left 103 (56.0%) 20 (46.5%) 1.26 0.26 21 (45.7%) 2 (20.0%) 2.23 0.135 54 (54.0%) 14 (63.6%) 0.68 0.41
Right 81 (44.0%) 23 (53.5%)    25 (54.3%) 8 (80.0%)    46 (46.0%) 8 (36.4%)   
Operative method, n (%)             
Partial 109 (59.2%) 11 (25.6%) 15.85  < 0.001 32 (69.6%) 2 (18.2) 9.74 0.002 51 (51.0%) 7 (31.8%) 2.66 0.10
Radical 75 (40.8%) 32 (74.4%)    14 (30.4%) 9 (81.8%)    49 (49.0%) 15 (68.2%)   
Hematuria, n (%) 13 (7.1%) 9 (20.9%) 7.66 0.006 10 (21.7%) 0 (0.0%) 2.90 0.089 11 (11.0%) 6 (27.3%) 3.98 0.046
Flank pain, n (%) 26 (14.1%) 6 (14.0%) 0.001 0.98 4 (8.7%) 3 (27.3%) 2.84 0.092 18 (18.0%) 6 (27.3%) 0.98 0.32
Distant Metastasis, n (%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (2.3%) 4.30 0.038 0 (0.0%) 1 (2.3%) 4.30 0.038 0 (0.0%) 1 (4.5%) 4.58 0.032
Necrosis, n (%) 76 (41.3%) 31 (72.1%) 13.26  < 0.001 19 (41.3%) 11 (100.0%) 12.67  < 0.001 40 (40.0%) 15 (68.2%) 5.79 0.016
Cystic Degeneration, n (%) 19 (10.4%) 4 (9.3%) 0.044 0.83 5 (10.9%) 1 (9.1%) 0.03 0.863 10 (10.0%) 0 (0.0%) 2.40 0.12
Calcification, n (%) 9 (4.9%) 6 (14.0%) 4.64 0.031 1 (2.2%) 2 (18.2%) 4.56 0.033 2 (2.0%) 4 (18.2%) 10.10 0.001
Violation of the Renal Capsule, n (%) 25 (13.6%) 19 (44.2%) 20.89  < 0.001 3 (6.5%) 0 (0.0%) 0.76 0.38 7 (7.0%) 10 (45.5%) 22.24  < 0.001
Angiogenesis, n (%) 101 (54.9%) 36 (83.7%) 12.11 0.001 23 (50.0%) 10 (90.9%) 6.10 0.014 60 (60.0%) 20 (90.9%) 7.63 0.006
Venous invasion, n (%) 1 (0.5%) 6 (14.0%) 20.97  < 0.001 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (1.0%) 1 (4.5%) 1.41 0.24
Perinephric Metastasis, n (%) 12 (6.5%) 15 (34.9%) 26.75  < 0.001 2 (4.3%) 2 (18.2%) 2.60 0.11 4 (4.0%) 7 (31.8%) 17.01  < 0.001