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Table 1 Clinical and radiological characteristics of patients involved in this research

From: Machine learning-based CT radiomics approach for predicting WHO/ISUP nuclear grade of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: an exploratory and comparative study

Characteristics Full cohort (n = 406) Low grade (n = 330) High grade (n = 76) t value or χ2-value p value
Age (years) 57.48 ± 12.10 57.12 ± 11.94 59.07 ± 12.73 1.268 0.205
Gender, n (%)      
Male 240 (59.1%) 189 (57.3%) 51 (67.1%) 2.471 0.116
Female 166 (40.9%) 141 (42.7%) 25 (32.9%)  
BMI (kg/m2) 24.30 ± 4.07 24.45 ± 4.04 23.69 ± 4.17 1.469 0.143
Smoking history, n (%) 135 (33.3%) 105 (31.8%) 30 (39.5%) 1.631 0.202
Hypertension, n (%) 147 (36.2%) 125 (37.9%) 22 (28.9%) 2.133 0.144
Diabetes, n (%) 62 (15.3%) 49 (14.8%) 13 (17.1%) 0.243 0.622
Tumor size (cm) 4.51 ± 2.29 4.21 ± 2.02 5.82 ± 2.85 4.674 < 0.001
Tumor bearing, n (%)      
Left 214 (52.7%) 178 (53.9%) 36 (47.4%) 1.070 0.301
Right 192 (47.3%) 152 (46.1%) 40 (52.6%)  
Operative method, n (%)      
Partial 213 (52.3%): 192 (58.2%): 20 (26.3%): 25.140 < 0.001
Radical 194 (47.7%) 138 (41.8%) 56 (73.7%)  
Hematuria, n (%) 49 (12.1%) 34 (10.3%) 15 (19.7%) 5.180 0.023
Flank pain, n (%) 63 (15.5%) 48 (14.5%) 15 (19.7%) 1.270 0.260
Distant Metastasis, n (%) 2 (0.5%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (2.6%) 0.035
Intratumoral necrosis, n (%) 192 (47.3%) 135 (40.9%) 57 (75.0%) 28.802 < 0.001
Cystic Degeneration, n (%) 39 (9.6%) 34 (10.3%) 5 (6.6%) 1.001 0.317
Calcification, n (%) 24 (5.9%) 12 (3.6%) 12 (15.8%) 14.292 < 0.001
Violation of the Renal Capsule, n (%) 64 (15.8%) 35 (10.6%) 29 (38.2%) 35.314 < 0.001
Angiogenesis, n (%) 250 (61.6%) 184 (55.8%) 66 (86.8%) 25.228  < 0.001
Venous invasion, n (%) 9 (2.2%) 2 (0.6%) 7 (9.2%) 17.316 < 0.001
Perinephric metastasis, n (%) 42 (10.3%) 18 (5.5%) 24 (31.6%) 45.456 < 0.001
  1. n number, BMI body mass index