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Table 4 Comparisons of renal cortical or medullary T2*, ADC and IVIM-derived parameters among the three groups

From: Noninvasive assessment of kidney dysfunction in children by using blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI and intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging

  Healthy volunteers CKD stage 1–3 CKD stage 4–5 p value
(n = 11) (n = 51) (n = 12) aP bP cP
Cortex
T2* 52.50 ± 1.64 49.67 ± 3.34 43.47 ± 2.31 0.006  < 0.001  < 0.001
ADC 2.014 ± 0.129 1.894 ± 0.118 1.658 ± 0.157 0.006  < 0.001  < 0.001
Dt 1.794 ± 0.852 1.670 ± 0.103 1.510 ± 0.178 0.002  < 0.001  < 0.001
Dp 21.94 ± 1.882 17.41 ± 10.96 16.35 ± 4.77 0.152 0.159 0.726
fp 0.257 ± 0.051 0.229 ± 0.066 0.187 ± 0.025 0.154 0.006 0.029
Medulla
T2* 27.27 ± 2.16 25.38 ± 2.06 21.33 ± 1.86 0.007  < 0.001  < 0.001
ADC 1.870 ± 0.159 1.752 ± 0.131 1.538 ± 0.146 0.011  < 0.001  < 0.001
Dt 1.666 ± 0.086 1.564 ± 0.080 1.432 ± 0.155 0.002  < 0.001  < 0.001
Dp 20.06 ± 1.35 15.53 ± 9.83 13.54 ± 5.21 0.239 0.122 0.423
fp 0.214 ± 0.019 0.203 ± 0.096 0.161 ± 0.028 0.694 0.127 0.114
  1. The unit of T2* is ms; ADC, Dt and Dp value are given as × 10–3mm2/s. The f value is dimensionless
  2. ADC apparent diffusion coefficient, Dt pure diffusion coefficient, Dp perfusion-related diffusion coefficient, fp pseudodiffusion fraction
  3. aP represents Healthy volunteers vs CKD stage 1–3
  4. bP represents Healthy volunteers vs CKD stage 4–5
  5. cP represents CKD stage 1–3 vs CKD stage 4–5