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Table 2 Baseline characteristics

From: Noninvasive assessment of kidney dysfunction in children by using blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI and intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging

Characteristics Healthy volunteers CKD stage 1–3 CKD stage 4–5 p value
Sex     0.449
 Male 8 27 6  
 Female 3 24 6  
Age (years) 7.46 ± 2.58 9.84 ± 2.99 8.58 ± 3.80 0.051
eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 143.64 ± 24.02 105.67 ± 40.24 15.09 ± 9.16  < 0.001
Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 34.58 ± 8.54 60.40 ± 34.66 462.09 ± 134.59  < 0.001
ACR 13.75 ± 12.64 1644.82 ± 4244.70 5664.08 ± 10,473.95  < 0.001
Serum albumin 45.48 ± 3.52 37.50 ± 9.09 36.84 ± 9.81 0.014
Cystatin C 0.83 ± 0.134 1.25 ± 0.64 4.73 ± 1.75  < 0.001
Underlying disease
Henoch–Schonlein purpura nephritis N/A 15 0 N/A
Lupus nephritis N/A 3 1 N/A
IgA nephropathy 12 0 N/A
Nephrotic syndrome N/A 17 5 N/A
Vesicoureteral reflux N/A 1 1 N/A
Unknow N/A 3 5 N/A
  1. Data are expressed as a number (gender and underlying disease) or means ± standard deviations
  2. eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ACR albumin/creatinine ratio, N/A not applicable