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Table 2 Conventional ultrasound and Doppler criteria to detect malignant nodule (n=72)

From: Accuracy of shear wave elastography in characterization of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents

Ultrasound features Malignant (n = 14) Benign (n = 58) Statistical significance
N (%) N (%) p value* Odds ratio (95% CI) Phi coefficiency #
Echopattern
Hypoechoic 10 (71.4) 9 (15.5)  < 0.001 13.61 (3.49–53.03) 0.502
Not hypoechoic 4 (28.6) 49 (84.5)    
Shape
Taller than wide 9 (64.3) 19 (32.8) 0.037 3.695 (1.09–12.55) 0.256
Wider than tall 5 (35.7) 39 (67.2)    
Consistency
Solid 12 (85.7) 47 (81.0) 1.0 1.4 (0.27–7.2) .048
Partially solid 2 (14.3) 11 (19.0)    
Halo
Halo Absent 12 (85.7) 11 (19.0)  < 0.001 25.64 (5.0–131.44) 0.567
Halo Present 2 (14.3) 47 (81.0)    
Outline
Irregular 8 (57.1) 8 (13.8) 0.002 8.333 (2.28–30.43) .413
Regular 6 (42.9) 50 (86.2)    
Calcification
Micro-calcification 11 (78.6) 2 (3.4)  < 0.001 102.67 (15.32–688.1) 0.773
No mico-calcification 3 (21.4) 56 (96.6)    
Vascularity
Internal vascularity &/internal and peripheral 12 (85.7) 6 (10.3)  < 0.001 52.0 (9.32–290.11) 0.689
No vascularity and/peripheral vascularity 2 (14.3) 52 (89.7)    
  1. *Fisher exact test was used as some expected cell values were less than 5
  2. CI, Confidence interval
  3. Significant p value if < 0.05 level
  4. # To detect effect size of the difference
  5. Weak (0.2)–Moderate (0.4)–Strong (0.6)–Very strong (0.8)–Perfect (1.0)