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Table 2 Examples of studies with a direct contribution to patient carea,b

From: Workload of diagnostic radiologists in the foreseeable future based on recent scientific advances: growth expectations and role of artificial intelligence

References Primary research area Description study Category Workload
[16] Neuroradiology Study purpose:
“To assess diagnostic accuracy of MR neurography in the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN)”
Study conclusion:
“MR neurography is an accurate method for assisting in the differential diagnosis of ALS and MMN”
Completely new imaging application Increases (new imaging application)
[17] Chest Study purpose:
“This study analyzed phantom and human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) data to test the hypothesis that ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT) can accurately measure peripheral airways that are difficult to measure with conventional CT”
Study conclusion:
“U-HRCT enables accurate and direct evaluation of peripheral airways 1–2 mm in diameter. The 6th generation airways are commonly < 2 mm in diameter, and the sum-LA can be a useful CT biomarker that reflects airflow limitation in COPD”
Another type of imaging as an alternative for an existing imaging application Increases (longer interpretation time than conventional HRCT)
[18] Nuclear medicine Study purpose:
“The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of whole-body [C]acetate PET/CT in less aggressive or indolent lymphomas, wherein [F]FDG PET/CT would exhibit limited sensitivity”
Study conclusion: “[C]acetate PET/CT exhibited greater sensitivity than [F]FDG PET/CT for lesion detection in patients with less aggressive or indolent lymphomas, thus promising applicability as a physiological tracer in the study of such lesions”
Another type of imaging as an alternative for an existing imaging application No change
[19] AI Study purpose:
“Focal pattern in multiple myeloma (MM) seems to be related to poorer survival and differentiation from diffuse to focal pattern on CT has inter-reader variability. We postulated that a radiomic approach could help radiologists in differentiating diffuse from focal patterns on CT”
Study conclusion:
“A radiomics approach improves radiological evaluation of focal and diffuse pattern of MM on CT”
Elaboration of an existing imaging application Increases (longer post-processing and interpretation time)
[20] Musculoskeletal Study purpose:
“To assess how many and which CT reformats of long bone non-unions should be analyzed to best approximate the analysis of a larger number of CT reformats obtained in the three orthogonal planes”
Study conclusion:
“Semi-quantitative analysis of the two paramedian sagittal and coronal CT reformats is an acceptable alternative to the analysis of more numerous reformats”
Elaboration of an existing imaging application Decreases (shorter interpretation time)
[21] Cardiac Study purpose:
“To investigate the clinical utility of our newly developed contrast enhancement optimizer (CEO) software for coronary CT angiography (CCTA)”
Study conclusion:
“The use of our CEO for CCTA studies yielded optimal aortic contrast enhancement in significantly more patients than the standard protocol based on the body weight”
Elaboration of an existing imaging application No change
  1. aBased on the applicability of the methods, results, interpretations, and conclusions, as described in each study, to the patient spectrum and radiology practice in the institutions of each of the two observers. Study quality was not a factor that influenced this decision
  2. bThe examples shown in this table study could directly contribute to patient care in the radiology practices of both observers 1 and 2