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Table 3 Relationship between MRI-detected extramural venous invasion  and patient outcome

From: MRI-detected extramural venous invasion of rectal cancer: Multimodality performance and implications at baseline imaging and after neoadjuvant therapy

Author Year No. of patients Neoadjuvant therapy Endpoint Hazard ratio (95% CI)
EMVI before neoadjuvant therapy
Chand [54] 2014 478 CRT (69.2%: 331/478) DSF (3 year) 2.08 (1.10–3.07)
Sclafani [53] 2014 269 CRT PFS (5 year) 1.85 (1.12–3.05)
Jalil [59] 2016 56 CRT OS 2.90 (1.00–8.37)
Patel [55] 2017 46 Chemotherapy DSF (3 year) 31.33 (2.31–425.4)
Lee [29] 2018 200 CRT DSF (3 year) 1.35 (0.64–2.82)
     OS 1.18 (0.51–2.77)
Jia [52] 2018 185 No DSF (3 year) 2.46 (1.28–4.74)
Meng [56] 2019 115 CRT DSF (3 year) 2.50 (1.24–5.01)
Gu [57] 2019 146 short course CRT DSF (3 year) 3.56 (2.03–13.32)
Meng [58] 2019 171 CRT DSF (3 year) 2.59 (1.40–4.80)
EMVI after neoadjuvant therapy
Chand [25] 2015 188 CRT DSF (3 year) 1.97 (1.01–3.90)
Jalil [59] 2016 56 CRT OS 4.23 (1.41–12.69)
Lee [29] 2018 200 CRT DSF (3 year) 2.68 (1.37–5.27)
     OS 1.98 (0.88–4.42)
Shiraishi [60] 2019 102 Chemotherapy RFS (5 year) 2.74 (1.36–5.50)
     OS 3.15 (0.91–10.89)
  1. CRT, chemoradiation therapy; DSF, disease-free survival; OS, overall survival; PFS, progression-free survival; RFS, recurrence-free survival