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Table 1 Summary of the posterior fossa extra-axial medulloblastomas documented in the PubMed database, which could aid to distinguish from typical intra-axial medulloblastoma

From: Posterior fossa extra-axial variations of medulloblastoma: a pictorial review as a primer for radiologists

No Authors Origin Age/sex CT characteristics MR characteristics Management Follow-up
1 Kumar et al. [2] CPA 9 years/M Hyperdense mass on plain scans, with heterogeneous enhancement T1: hypointense; T2: heterogenous; CEMR: mass enhancement Tumor excision; chemotherapy and radiotherapy Died
CPA 8 years/M Iso-to hypodense mass with heterogeneous enhancement Tumor excision; radiotherapy Died
CPA 20 years/F T1 and T2: heterogeneous signal; CEMR: heterogeneous enhancement Tumor excision; radiotherapy Improved
CPA 24 years/M Heterogenous mass Subtotal resection; chemotherapy Died
2 Spina et al. [5] CPA (2 cases) 22 years/M
26 years/F
T2/FLAIR: hyperintense; CEMR: heterogeneous enhancement Total excision; radiotherapy Improved
3 Fallah et al. [9] CPA 47 years/M Homogenously enhancing mass with well-defined borders Total excision; radiotherapy
4 Furtado et al. [10] CPA 32 years/M Hyperdense mass on plain scan T1: hypointense; T2: mixed intensity; CEMR: heterogenous enhancement + dural tail sign; MRS: choline and taurine peak increase and creatine peak decrease Total excision; radiotherapy Improved
5 Bhaskar et al. [12] CPA Infant/M Hyperdense mass on plain scans T1: hypointense; T2: isointense; CEMR: intense homogenous enhancement Total excision Died, postoperative day 20
6 Yamada et al. [16] CPA 19 years/F Hypoattenuated mass with homogenous enhancement T1: hypointense; CEMR: mass enhancement Subtotal resection; immunotherapy and radiotherapy Improved, with no recurrence
7 Akay et al. [17] CPA 21 years/M Heterogenous high attenuation T1: hypointense; T2: hyperintense; CEMR: heterogeneous Subtotal resection; chemotherapy and radiotherapy Improved
8 Jaiswal et al. [18] CPA (14 cases) 3–53 years/seven M and six F Heterogeneous attenuation with necrosis T1: hypointense; T2: hyperintense; CEMR: heterogenous Seven patients: Total excision; seven patients: subtotal resection; total eight patients received chemotherapy Follow-up: nine cases
Recurrence: two cases
Symptom-free: seven cases
9 Becker et al. [22] CPA (two cases) and tentorial (three cases) 28–52 years/one M and four F Heterogenous signal intensity and enhancement
10 Meshkini et al. [23] Lateral cerebellar 19 years/F CEMR: heterogenous intense enhancement with cystic changes Tumor resection
   CPA 7 years/F CEMR: heterogenous intense enhancement with cystic changes Tumor resection
11 Doan et al. [24] Tentorial 29 years/M CEMR: homogenous enhancement + dural tail sign Subtotal resection; chemotherapy and radiotherapy
12 Presutto et al. [25] Lateral cerebellar 33 m/M Mildly hyperattenuating on plain scans, with homogenous enhancement T2/FLAIR: hyperintense; DWI: restricted diffusion Total resection Improved
13 Chung EJ, et al. [26] Lateral cerebellar 5 years/M T1: isointense; T2: isointense; CEMR: homogeneous enhancement Tumor excision; radiotherapy Improved
14 Pant I et al. [45] CPA 15 years/M   T2: heterogeneous signal intensity with necrotic areas/cystic degeneration; CEMR: heterogeneous enhancement; DWI: restricted diffusion Tumor resection
15 Gil-Salu et al. [49] CPA 40 years/M Homogeneously enhancing mass Homogenous enhancement Total excision; adjuvant therapy
16 Singh et al. [50] CPA 21 years/M Heterogeneously non-enhancing mass Heterogenous signal intensity and enhancement Total excision Recurrence and metastasis at 15 months
17 Bahrami et al. [51] CPA 23 years/M T1: hypointense; T2: hyperintense; CEMR: heterogenous Total excision; radiotherapy Improved
18 Mehta et al. [52] CPA 40 years/M Heterogenous enhancement Subtotal resection; radiotherapy Improved
19 Ahn et al. [53] CPA 9 m/F T1: hypointense; T2: hypointense; CEMR: heterogenous Subtotal resection; possible chemotherapy and Radiotherapy Died after 2 months
20 Naim-ur-Rahman et al. [54] CPA 3 years/F Heterogeneously enhancing mass Tumor excision Improved
21 Izycka-Swieszewska et al. [55] CPA 26 years/F Homogenous enhancement T1: hypointense; T2: hyperintense; CEMR: homogenous enhancement Tumor excision
22 Park et al. [56] CPA 15 years/M Hyperdense mass causing internal auditory canal dilation T1: hypointense; T2: hypointense; CEMR: heterogenous Subtotal resection; chemotherapy and radiotherapy Improved
23 Santagata et al. [57] CPA 17 years/F Hyperdense mass forming a flat surface against the posterior aspect of the left petrous bone and tentorium CEMR: heterogeneous enhancement Tumor excision; chemotherapy and radiotherapy
24 Nyanaveelan et al. [58] CPA 5 years/F Mass eroding the petrous bone Tumor excision; chemotherapy and radiotherapy
25 Yoshimura et al. [59] CPA 29 years/F T1: isointense; T2/FLAIR: Hyperintense; CEMR: No enhancement; DWI: restricted diffusion; MRS: high ratio of choline‐to‐N‐acetyl aspartate Subtotal resection; chemotherapy and radiotherapy Improved
26 Cugati et al. [60] CPA 4 years/F Contrast-enhancing extra-axial mass in the CPA, centered around the internal acoustic meatus T1: hypointense; T2: hyperintense; CEMR: intense enhancement Tumor excision
27 Kumar et al. [61] CPA 9 years/F Isodense to hypodense mass in the right CPA
Homogenous enhancement
T1: hypointense; T2: hyperintense; CEMR: brilliant enhancement Tumor excision; radiotherapy Improved
  1. CEMR contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance, FLAIR fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, DWI diffusion-weighted imaging, MRS magnetic resonance spectroscopy