Skip to main content

Table 2 Recommended imaging protocol and follow-up schedule

From: Follow-up after radiological intervention in oncology: ECIO-ESOI evidence and consensus-based recommendations for clinical practice

  Kidney Liver Lung
Follow-up schedule First year: 1, 3, 6 , 12 months
Thereafter: every 12 months (chest imaging every 12 months)
First year: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 months
Thereafter: every 6 months
Consider shortening of interval in high risk patients or other signs of recurrence
First year: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 months (optional: before discharge after ablation)
Thereafter: every 6 months
Recommended modalities 1. CT or MRI of the kidneys
2. Biopsy only after 6 months in case of suspected recurrence
1. Primary MRI (mandatory after TACE with Lipiodol), secondary CT
2. PET-CT only for metastases > 2cm and not for HCC
3. PET-CT (if available) within 48h after ablation
4. PET-CT as a problem solver and in case of suspected LTP
5. Biopsy of ablation margin can be considered in margins < 5mm (➔optional to replace MRI at 6 and 12 months by PET-CT)
1. CT
2. PET-CT not before 6 months, only in case of suspected recurrence (and targeted biopsy for recurrence), whole-body evaluation
Computed tomography unenhanced unenhanced (HCC) unenhanced CT optional to establish enhancement compared to baseline late arterial (35s) after treatment
  arterial phase (20-30s) late arterial (35-40s) (HCC)  
  nephrogenic phase (100s) portal-venous (70s) (CRLM+HCC) venous (70s) optional, if available
  delayed phase (10 min; to assess complications) late venous (≥120s) (HCC)  
  slice thickness maximally 3 mm slice thickness maximally 3 mm slice thickness 1 mm
Magnetic resonance imaging axial T2W (with and without fatsat) axial GRE in and opposed phase T1W  
  axial and coronal dual echo axial T2W FSE (with and without fatsat  
  axial dynamic 3D GRE before and after Gd (20/70/180s) axial dynamic 3D fatsat GRE before and after Gd (20/70/180s)  
  axial 5 min post contrast GRE axial 20 min after hepatobiliary specific Gd agent  
  axial DWI axial DWI  
   subtraction images are highly recommended for HCC  
   axial and coronal T2 HASTE  
PET-CT NA Only in CRLM: standard protocol for FDG-PET-CT standard protocol for FDG-PET-CT
  1. Abbreviations: CT computed tomography, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, transarterial chemoembolization, (FDG-)PET (fluorodeoxyglucose) positron emission tomography, LTP local tumor progression, CRLM colorectal liver metastases, GRE gradient echo, FSE fast spin echo, fat sat fat saturation, Gd gadolinium, DWI diffusion-weighted imaging, HASTE half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo