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Table 1 Survey results

From: Neuroradiology training in EU: international survey of 31 countries within UEMS frame

CountryNo. of respondentsSpecialty school/fellowship in neuroradiologyHow to become neuroradiologistHow to become interventional neuroradiologistNeuroendovascular procedures performed by interventional radiologistsNeuroendovascular procedures performed by non-radiologistsINR training required
Austria3NoNo specific NR requirements or qualification.No specific INR requirements or qualification. Certification of neuro-interventionalists and training sites based on existing modular certification concept by the scientific societies ÖGIR (Austrian society for interventional radiology) and ÖGNR (Austrian society for neuroradiology) is highly recommended.YesYesNo
Belgium2NoNo specific NR requirements or qualification.No specific INR requirements or qualification.YesYesNo
Bulgaria2NoNo specific NR requirements or qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.YesYesNo, but it is in progress.
Croatia1YesSpecific NR requirements & qualification.No specific INR requirements or qualification.YesNoYes, but no formal
Cyprus1YesSpecific NR requirements, but No qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.YesNoYes
Czech Republic1No, it used to be in the past.No specific NR requirements or qualification.No specific INR requirements or qualification. INR is part of Interventional Radiology training.YesNoNo
Denmark1NoNo specific NR requirements or qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.YesNoYes: No formal fellowship is available, but training is required before independent work as INR specialist is performed.
Estonia1NoNo specific NR requirements or qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.YesYesYes
Finland3YesSpecific NR requirements & qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.YesNoYes
France*3NoSpecific NR requirements, but No qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.YesYesYes
Germany3YesSpecific NR requirements & qualification.Specific INR requirements or qualification.YesNoYes
Greece2No. But in the process of the subspecialty of diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology to be approved.No specific NR requirements or qualification.Specific INR requirements & qualification. The qualification is currently obtained by training in other countries that provide INR qualifications and is approved by the Ministry of Health.No. There is a discussion that Interventional Radiologists get involved in stroke after a minimum of 9-month training.YesYes
Hungary1YesSpecific NR requirements & qualification. It is a secondary board examination following board exam in Radiology.Specific INR requirements & qualification. See point 6.Yes, after completion of the special competency license training and examination in Neurointerventions.Yes, after completion of the special competency license training and examination in Neurointerventions.Yes, it is a special competency license, requiring a 2 years fulltime clinical training in INR following a board exam in either radiology, neuroradiology, neurology, neurosurgery or cardiology.
Iceland1NoSpecific NR requirements & qualification.Specific INR requirements & qualification.NoNoNo
Ireland1Yes: no specialty school exists, but fellowship training in Neuroradiology is provided.Specific NR requirements & qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification. Must have completed 2 years of fellowship training in neuroradiology.NoNoYes
Italy*4NoSpecific NR requirements, but No qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.YesYesNo
Latvia1YesSpecific NR requirements & qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.YesNoYes
Lithuania1NoNo specific NR requirements or qualification.No specific INR requirements or qualification. INR procedures could be performed by any interventional radiologist.YesYes. In smaller centres, cardiologists perform thrombectomy (only) in case of stroke.No
Luxembourg1NoSpecific NR requirements, but No qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.YesYesNo
Malta1NoSpecific NR requirements, but No qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.NoNoYes
Netherlands1YesSpecific NR requirements & qualification.Specific INR requirements & qualification.No, except for endovascular treatment (stroke).YesYes (dedicated fellowship for INR, which can be entered by certified Radiologists, Neurologists, and Neurosurgeons).
Norway1NoNo specific NR requirements or qualification.No specific INR requirements or qualification.YesYesNo
Poland3NoNo specific NR requirements or qualification.Specific INR requirements & qualification (certificate provided by Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, which is a Subdivision of Polish Medical Society of Radiology).Yes, only stroke.YesYes
Portugal1YesSpecific NR requirements & qualification. Neuroradiology is an independent speciality with a five-year training programme and a final examination by a national jury.Specific INR requirements & qualification.No. Only Neuroradiologists can perform neuro intervention.No. Only Neuroradiologists can perform these interventions as answered previously.Yes
Romania1NoSpecific NR requirements, but No qualification. From 2018 NR is part of specialization of Interventional Radiology.Specific INR requirements & qualification. Mandatory training in NR and INR, and candidates must pass an exam in order to perform Neurointerventional procedures.YesYes, very few cases (neurosurgeons).Yes, but probably no more in the future.
Slovenia1NoSpecific NR requirements, but No qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.YesNoYes
Spain2NoNo specific NR requirements or qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.YesYesNo. However, most Neuro-interventionalists have received training from Interventio-nal Neuroradiologists in Academic/University Hospitals.
Sweden2YesSpecific NR requirements & qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.NoYesYes
Switzerland*3YesSpecific NR requirements & qualification & examination.Specific INR requirements & qualification & examination.No (unless in a certified neurovascular centre under the supervision of a certified neuroradiologist).No (unless in a certified neurovascular centre under the supervision of a certified neuroradiologist).Yes
Turkey1NoSpecific NR requirements & qualification.Specific INR requirements & qualification.YesYesNo
UK*4Yes: no specialty school exists, but fellowship training in Neuroradiology is provided.Specific NR requirements, but No qualification.Specific INR requirements, but No qualification.Not yet. (currently there are body interventional radiologists training for thrombectomy).NoYes
  1. *Countries where the involvement of additional referents from European or National scientific societies was necessary due to the uncertainty or discordance of the UEMS delegate’s answer/s