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Table 2 Characteristics of included publications

From: An analysis of key indicators of reproducibility in radiology

CharacteristicOriginal sample N (%) Validation sample N (%)
Type of studyN= 294No empirical data79 (26.9)Type of studyN= 19844 (22.2)
Clinical trial55 (18.7)55 (27.8)
Laboratory44 (15.0)43(21.7)
Chart review42 (14.3)12 (6.1)
Cohort19 (6.5)18 (9.1)
Case study18 (6.1)11 (5.6)
Survey12 (4.1)3 (1.5)
Cost effect7 (2.4)4 (2.0)
Case control6 (2.0)1 (0.5)
Cross-sectional5 (1.7)3 (1.5)
Meta-analysis4 (1.4)0 (0.0)
Case series2 (0.7)3 (1.5)
Multiple1 (0.3)1 (0.5)
Other0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Test subjectsN= 294Humans167 (56.8)Test subjectsN= 198108 (54.6)
Neither116 (39.5)77 (38.9)
Animals11 (3.7)13 (6.6)
Both0 (0)0 (0)
Country of journal publicationN= 294US209 (71.1)Country of journal publicationN= 198128 (64.7)
UK44 (15.0)36 (18.2)
Germany6 (2.0)8 (4.04)
France5 (1.7)7 (3.54)
Japan3 (1.0)5 (2.53)
Canada3 (1.0)0 (0.0)
Italy2 (0.7)0 (0.0)
India1 (0.3)0 (0.0)
Other21 (7.14)14 (7.1)
Country of corresponding authorN= 294US102 (34.7)Country of corresponding authorN= 19874 (37.4)
China19 (6.5)13 (6.6)
Germany17 (5.8)16 (8.1)
Japan17 (5.8)12 (6.1)
Australia15 (5.1)11 (5.6)
South Korea14 (4.8)12 (6.1)
Turkey13 (4.4)3 (1.5)
Canada13 (4.4)3 (1.5)
UK9 (3.1)7 (3.5)
Netherlands9 (3.1)6 (3.0)
France8 (2.7)9 (4.5)
Switzerland7 (2.4)5 (2.5)
India5 (1.7)2 (1.0)
Italy5 (1.7)2 (1.0)
Spain3 (1.0)0 (0.0)
Unclear2 (0.7)0 (0.0)
Other36 (12.2)23 (11.6)
Open accessN= 300Yes ­ found via open-access button80 (26.7)Open accessN= 19867 (33.8)
Yes ­ found article via other means71 (23.7)23 (11.6)
Could not access through paywall149 (49.7)108 (54.5
5-year impact factorN= 272Median2.8245 -year impact factorN= 1822.89
1st quartile1.7652.02
3rd quartile3.7183.55
Interquartile range1.9531.53
Most recent impact factor yearN= 3002017266Most recent impact factor yearN= 2000
201810186
Not found2414
Most recent impact factorN= 276Median2.758Most recent impact factorN= 1862.68
1st quartile1.8231.94
3rd quartile3.3933.79
Interquartile range1.571.85
Cited by systematic review or meta-analysisN= 211No citations193 (91.5)Cited by systematic review or meta-analysisN= 151132 (87.4)
A single citation11 (5.2)13 (8.6)
One to five citations7 (3.3)6 (4.0)
Greater than five citations0 (0)0 (0)
Excluded in SR or MA0 (0)0 (0)
Cited by replication studyN= 211No citations211 (100)Cited by replication studyN= 151151 (100)
A single citation0 (0)0 (0)
One to five citations0 (0)0 (0)
Greater than five citations0 (0)0 (0)
Excluded in SR or MA0 (0)0 (0)