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Table 1 The defining criteria of borderline resectability according to the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) consensus (2016)

From: Imaging diagnosis and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: a comprehensive review

IAP consensus criteria for defining borderline resectability of PDAC (2016)
Anatomical• Higher likelihood of positive resection margin
• Neoadjuvant therapy increases the probability for (R0)
Borderline venous
• > 180° tumor contact with SMV/PV or bilateral narrowing or occlusion without extension beyond the inferior border of the duodenum
Borderline arterial
• ≤ 180° tumor contact with SMA/CA without stenosis or deformity
• Tumor abutment of CHA with no extension to proper hepatic artery and/or CA
Biological• Suspicious but uncertain distant metastasis
• Serum carbohydrate antigen (CA 19–9) > 500 U/ml
Conditional• Performance status and comorbidities of the patients even considered even if the tumor is resectable
  1. SMV superior mesenteric vein, PV portal vein, CA celiac artery, CHA common hepatic artery, SMA superior mesenteric artery