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Table 1 Anatomic regions affected by environmental diseases that have been assessed with imaging methods

From: Imaging methods used in the assessment of environmental disease networks: a brief review for clinicians

RegionDiseaseImaging methodFindings
BrainLead exposureMRIDecreased NAA/Cr ratios in grey matter wich suggest neuronal loss.
Finding were more remarkable in frontal regions [13].
BrainDTIDTI shows abnormalities in radial diffusivity which means changes in myelin sheath thickness and organisational characteristics.
BrainCerebral strokeCarotid ultrasonographyIncreased carotid intima-media thickness, decreased carotid arteries distensibility, early atherosclerotic lesions [9].
BrainPesticide neurotoxicityMRSRegional elongation in the cerebral surface with changes in the gyrus rectus, superior frontal gyrus, cuneus and precuneus along the mesial wall of the right hemisphere.
Anatomical alterations in the mesial and dorsal surfaces of the left superior frontal gyrus [4].
Thorax–lungsSmoke inhalationRadiographyChest radiography shows three stages:
1. The acute stage < 24 h after exposition: normal characteristics of the lungs.
2. The subacute stage 2–5 days after exposition: manifests as pulmonary oedema, atelectasis, pulmonary micro-embolism, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
3. The delayed stage > 5 days after exposition: pneumonia and pulmonary thromboembolism [6].
LungsOrganophosphates poisoningRadiographyLung oedema that could appear within 24 hours after exposition [14].
GIChronic inflammatory bowel diseaseAortic ultrasoundIncreased aortic intima-media thickness [9].
HeartMyocardial infarctionCarotid ultrasoundIncreased carotid intima-media thickness [9].
ArteriesArtery hypertensionAortic and brachial ultrasoundHigher stiffness and lower elasticity [9].