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Table 1 CT findings of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

From: Cross-sectional imaging of acute gynaecologic disorders: CT and MRI findings with differential diagnosis—part II: uterine emergencies and pelvic inflammatory disease

Tubo-ovarian disease Morphology CT Contrast-enhanced CT
Hydrosalpinx Fluid-filled thin-walled tubular structure
Tubal dilatation with fluid attenuation

No enhancement
Haematosalpinx Dilated fallopian tube filled with blood products
Increased attenuation due to haemorrhagic content

Slight wall enhancement
Acute salpingitis Swollen fallopian tube with intramural inflammation
Hypoattenuating fluid distension

Wall thickening and enhancement
Pyosalpinx Bilateral, serpiginous or tubular structure with purulent content and possible fluid-debris levels
Fluid-debris levels, perivisceral fat stranding

Wall enhancement
Tubo-ovarian abscess Loss of the normal adnexal structure, formation of a solid-cystic pus-filled inflammatory mass
Multilocular solid-cystic mass, low attenuation, perivisceral fat stranding

Wall and septal enhancement