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Table 2 Multiple-choice questions about user feelings/forecasts in respect to the advent of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in radiological practice in the next 5–10 years

From: Impact of artificial intelligence on radiology: a EuroAIM survey among members of the European Society of Radiology

Question number Topic Answers
Maximum number List
1 Which radiological subspecialties do you foresee will be more influenced by AI in the next 5–10 years? 3 Breast; Cardiovascular; Emergency; Gastrointestinal/Abdominal; General; Head & Neck; Interventional; Molecular imaging/Nuclear; Musculoskeletal; Neuroradiology; Oncologic imaging; Paediatric; Thoracic; Urogenital
2 Which techniques do you foresee will be the most important fields of AI-applications in the next 5–10 years? 3 Radiography, Mammography, Ultrasound, Angiography/Fluoroscopy, CT, MRI, PET/Nuclear, Hybrid imaging; DXA; Experimental imaging (animal models); Optical imaging; Other
3 Which of the following AI applications you think are more relevant as aids to radiological profession? (Up to 3 answers) 3 Imaging protocol optimisation; Image post-processing; Detection in asymptomatic subjects (screening); Detection of incidental findings; Lesion characterisation/diagnosis in symptomatic subjects; Staging/restaging in oncology; Support to structured reporting; Quantitative measure of imaging biomarkers; Prognosis; Other
4 Do you foresee an AI impact on professional radiologist’s life in terms of amount of job positions in the next 5–10 years? 1 No; Yes, job positions will be reduced; Yes, job positions will increase
5 In the next 5–10 years, the use of AI-based applications will make radiologists’ duties 1 More technical; More clinical; Unchanged; Other
6 Do you think that, in the next 5–10 years, the use of AI-based applications will help to report also examinations outside the field of subspecialisation? 1 No, radiologists will be more focused on radiology subspecialties; Yes, radiologists will be less focused on radiology subspecialties; The rate of dedication to subspecialties will remain unchanged
7 Do you foresee an AI impact on professional radiologist’s life in terms of total reporting workload in the next 5–10 years? 1 No; Yes, it will increase; Yes, it will be reduced
8 In the next 5–10 years, who will take the legal responsibility of AI-system output? 1 Radiologists; Other physicians (e.g., clinicians asking for the imaging study); Developers of AI applications; Insurance companies; Shared responsibility; Other
9 In the next 5–10 years, will patients mostly accept a report from AI applications without supervision and approval by a physician? 1 Yes; No; Difficult to estimate at present
10 How will be the relationship between the radiologist and the patient because of AI introduction? 1 More impersonal; More interactive; Unchanged
11 What will be the role of radiologists in developing/validation AI applications to medical imaging? 2 None; Provide labelled images; Help in task definition; Develop AI-based applications; Supervise all stages needed to develop an AI-based application
12 Should radiologists be educated on 2 Technical methods, such as machine/deep learning algorithms; Advantages and limitations of AI applications; Clinical use of AI applications; How to get into the driver seat in using AI; How to avoid the use of AI applications; How to survive to AI revolution
13 If AI will allow to save working/reporting time, should radiologists use the saved time for interacting with 1 AI developers (e.g., engineers, computer scientists); Other radiologists; Other clinicians; Patients; Administrators
14 Are you utilising AI-based products or services in your clinical practice? 1 Yes; No, but planning to utilise; No
15 Are you involved in research projects on AI-based application development? 1 Yes, testing; Yes, developing; No, but planning to be involved; No