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Table 1 Studies in the literature that compare the direct sac with the endovascular approach for the treatment of Type II endoleaks. Technical success*: immediate exclusion of the sac at the first control. Clinical success**: freedom from endoleak recurrence at the follow-up. DSPE, direct sac puncture embolisation; TAE, transarterial embolisation

From: Techniques and future perspectives for the prevention and treatment of endoleaks after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms

Study No. Mean follow-up time Technical success* (%) Clinical success** (%)
Baum et al. [48] 20 TAE 254 days 90 20
13 DSPE 254 days 100 92
Stavropoulos et al. [49] 23 TAE 17.3 months 95.7 78.3
62 DSPE 20.2 months 100 72.6
Nevala et al. [74] 10 TAE 4.5 ± 2.3 years 40 20
4 DSPE 4.5 ± 2.3 years 100 75
Massis et al. [75] 65 TAE 15 weeks 58 76
36 DSPE 15 weeks 100 59
Yang et al. [57] 23 DSPE 21.8 months 100 64
81 57