Skip to main content

Table 7 Some exposure parameters from the period 1900–1910 and the corresponding ESAKa

From: The skin dose of pelvic radiographs since 1896

Author Year Inter- Vprimb,c Iprimb,c kVp Iav_sec texpo FSD KfiA at 1 m ESAK
rupterb,d V A kV mA s cm μGy/mAs mGy
Beck [64] 1904 W 115 1.5 72 0.52 210 23 320 374
Thurston-Holland [65] 1904 Hg 24 8 45 2.4 120 29 316 370
Biddle [66] 1905     72 15 10 30 253 296
Albers-Schönberg [67] 1906 W 70 9 81 1.68 162 40 243 352
Janus [39] 1909     104 5.1 40 39 309 353
Arthure [68] 1909 Hg 50 8 84 3.0 240 25 247 2374e
,, 1909 W 80 15 84 3.1 80 25 247 807
Béclère [69] 1910     110 7 20 29 337 477
Jaugeas [70] 1910     109 15 17.5 29 325 863
,, 1910     110 25 6 29 330 501
,, f 1910     74 10 5 29 213 108
Tousey [71] 1910 W 110 16.5 90 4.4 45 35 266 366
,, 1910     90 9 45 35 266 753
  1. aWall thickness 0.85 mm glass. Inductor and ion tubes only
  2. bOnly relevant before 1910 when information on primary circuits was needed (and available)
  3. cVprim = DC-voltage primary circuit, Iprim = average primary current
  4. dInterrupter: W=Wehnelt electrolytic break, Hg = mercury break
  5. eExceptionally high ESAK. All input taken from pag 101 in [68]. Their Fig. 14 on page 25 shows a correct configuration for voltage and current measurement, and the dose should generally not cause burns. But note also the uncertainty in our estimates
  6. fJaugeas: This low value is for “new Lumière plates and Gehler Folie screens”