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Table 5 Some exposure parameters from before 1900 and the corresponding ESAK

From: The skin dose of pelvic radiographs since 1896

Author Year kVp Pseca,b Iav_seca texpoa FSDa KfiA at 1 m ESAK
kV W mA min cm μGy/mAs mGy
Macintyre [58] 1896 96 5 0.066 12 29 362 174
Rosenfeld [59] 1897 60 5 0.106 50 39 220 391
Foveau de Courmelles [60] 1897 75 10 0.170 30 29 282 870
Gocht [61] 1898 80 10 0.159 10 39 300 160
Isenthal [62] 1898 80 5 0.080 25 30 304 367
Walsh [63] 1899 80 10 0.159 30 55 294 235
  1. aPsec = secondary power, Iav_sec = average tube current, texpo = time, FSD = focus-skin distance
  2. bThe KfiA effectively depends on the available secondary electrical power only, as the tube current and kVp are largely interchangeable