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Fig. 3 | Insights into Imaging

Fig. 3

From: Convolutional neural networks: an overview and application in radiology

Fig. 3Fig. 3

ac An example of convolution operation with a kernel size of 3 × 3, no padding, and a stride of 1. A kernel is applied across the input tensor, and an element-wise product between each element of the kernel and the input tensor is calculated at each location and summed to obtain the output value in the corresponding position of the output tensor, called a feature map. d Examples of how kernels in convolution layers extract features from an input tensor are shown. Multiple kernels work as different feature extractors, such as a horizontal edge detector (top), a vertical edge detector (middle), and an outline detector (bottom). Note that the left image is an input, those in the middle are kernels, and those in the right are output feature maps

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