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Table 1 Proposed MRI protocol for cervical cancer staging

From: The value of advanced MRI techniques in the assessment of cervical cancer: a review

Sequence Technical aspects Comments
T1 axial TSE/2D GRE Whole abdomen and pelvis ST 5 mm Assessment of lymph nodes and distant metastases
T2 coronal SS-TSE Whole abdomen and pelvis ST 5 mm Assessment of lymph nodes and distant metastases
T2 sagittal TSE Small FOV ca. 0.5 × 0.5 mm in-plane resolution ST 3 mm Tumour evaluation (size, extension), assessment of rectal and bladder infiltration
T2 axial oblique TSE Small FOV ca. 0.5 × 0.5 mm in-plane resolution ST 3 mm perpendicular to long axis of cervical canal Tumour extension, assessment of parametrial invasion and rectal and bladder infiltration
T2 coronal oblique TSE Small FOV ca. 0.5 × 0.5 mm in-plane resolution ST 3 mm parallel to long axis of cervical canal Tumour extension, assessment of parametrial invasion in a second imaging plane
DWI axial oblique EPI Small FOV ST 3 mm b values 100, 600, 1,000 s/mm2 Tumour extension, assessment of parametrial invasion
Optional: multiphase 3D T1w fat-saturated sequences GRE ST 3 mm one native, four post-contrast scans Alternatively DCE axial oblique (temporal resolution <10 s)
  1. Preparation: fasting (>4 h), antiperistaltic agents, moderately filled bladder
  2. DCE dynamic contrast enhanced, DWI diffusion weighted imaging, EPI echo-planar imaging, FOV field of view, GRE gradient echo, ST slice thickness, TSE turbo spin echo, SS-TSE single-shot turbo spin echo