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Table 1 Derivatives of the branchial clefts and pouches. Arch 5 does not form structures in humans and is, therefore, not listed in Table 1

From: Branchial cleft anomalies: a pictorial review of embryological development and spectrum of imaging findings

  Pharyngeal arch Aortic arch artery Cranial nerve Muscular structures Skeletal structures Adult structures
External auditory meatus I (Mandibular arch) Maxillary artery Trigeminal (V) Mandibular prominence:
muscles of mastication, anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid.
Maxilliary prominence: none.
Mandibular prominence:
mandible, incus, malleus, Meckel’s cartilages.
Maxilliary prominence: maxilla, zygomatic bone, squamos temporal bone, palatine bone, vomer.
Middle ear auditory tube, tympanic activity
II (Hyoid arch) Stapedial artery, hyoid artery Facial nerve (VII) Muscles of facial expression, (buccinator, platysma, auricularis, frontalis, orbicularis oris, orbicularis oculi) stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastric, stapedius. Lesser horn of the hyoid bone, superior half of hyoid body, stapes, styloid process. Supratonsillar fossa, crypts of palatine tonsils
Cervical sinus of His III Common carotid, internal carotid artery Glossopharyngeal (IX) Stylopharyngeus Greater horn of hyoid bone, inferior half of hyoid body. Thymus, inferior parathyroid glands
IV Right-Proximal subclavian artery
Left-Aortic arch
Vagus nerve (X), superior laryngeal nerve Intrinsic muscles of soft palate, levator veli palatini, cricothyroid Laryngeal cartilages:
thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, corniculate cartilage, cuneiform cartilage, epiglottic cartilage
Superior parathyroid glands, C-cells of thyroid
VI Right – proximal pulmonary artery
Left – proximal pulmonary artery and ductus arteriosus
Vagus nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve Intrinsic muscles of the larynx, (not cricothyroid) Laryngeal cartilages:
thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, corniculate cartilage, cuneiform cartilage.