Skip to main content

Table 1 Pitfalls classification based on categories before treatment

From: Pitfalls in Interpreting mp-MRI of the Prostate: A Pictorial Review with Pathologic Correlation

Category Pitfall
1. Pitfalls in primary diagnosis 1. Bilateral basal hypointense zones (moustache sign)
2. Median posterior hypointense area at the middle third of the gland
3. Transition zone prostate cancer versus BPH foci of stromal hyperplasia
4. Ectopic BPH nodule
5. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical instillation of BCG
6. Hypertrophic anterior fibromuscular stroma
7. Periprostatic venous plexus and neurovascular bundle
2. Pitfall in the staging 1. T3 versus T2 (overlapping with pitfalls in primary diagnosis: granulomatous prostatitis, periprostatic venous plexus and neurovascular bundle)
5. Bone findings
6. Controversial on lymph nodes
3. Artifacts/iatrogenic changes 1. Mispositioned endorectal coil
2. Post-biopsy changes
3. Lymphoceles