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Table 2 Imaging and personalised medicine

From: Medical imaging in personalised medicine: a white paper of the research committee of the European Society of Radiology (ESR)

Diagnosis:
 From symptoms to underlying diagnosis with the support of imaging
Diagnostic procedure:
 Imaging procedures tailored to the clinical problem and patient characteristics
Prevention/screening:
 Imaging to improve risk stratification or to detect preclinical disease
Selection of the right treatment with imaging information
 Imaging to assess the localisation and extent disease
 Imaging for functional and biological characterisation of lesions
 Image-guided biopsy to get specimens for genetic/molecular characterisation
 Imaging biomarkers to predict response to treatment, recurrence and survival
 Agents that can be used for imaging diagnostics and therapeutic purposes (theranostics)
 Imaging biomarkers associated with genetic/molecular features (radiogenomics)
Evaluation of treatment response:
 Imaging to assess early the effects of treatment in order to adapt treatment
Imaging in drug discovery and drug trials:
 Surrogate imaging biomarkers to evaluate the effect of new personalised treatment
Personalised treatment:
 Image-guided treatment with surgical, radiotherapeutical, minimally or non-invasive interventional procedures