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Table 6 Mean entrance doses in air, including backscatter, in pelvic radiography according to studies in the past two decades

From: Gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography: disadvantages prevail over benefit

Age Ruiza et al. [33] Martin et al. [22] Kyriou et al. [23] McDonalda et al. [24] Mooney and Thomas[25] Hufton et al. [26] Gogosb et al. [27] Azevedo et al. [34] Yakoumakisb et al. [28] Kiljunenc et al. [29] Sulimand and Elshiekh [30] This studye
1991 1994 1996 1996 1998 1998 2003 2006 2007 2008 2008  
(years) (μGy) f (μGy) g (μGy) (μGy) (μGy) (μGy) h (μGy) i (μGy) j (μGy) k (μGy) (μGy) (μGy) l (μGy) m (μGy) (μGy) (μGy)
0-1 1070 910   140 60 140 120 69 90 147 513 243 449 140 226 110
1-5 1295 1130 410 350 80 360 200 234 95 123 797 - 358 420 309 62
5-10 2350 3010 680 550 600 560 300 458 298 347 1286 354 669 - 388 116
10-15 3170 4180 1230 1070 1200 1180 430 983 558 508 1816 652 913 2540 321 324n/713o
  1. aEntrance dose in tissue, which is typically 5% higher than entrance doses in air which includes backscatter
  2. bAge groups (years) 0–0.5, 0.5-2, 3–7, 8–12
  3. cAge groups (years) <0.5, 2.5-7.5, 12.5-17.5
  4. dValues at 1, 5, 10 and 15 years; averaged over 3 hospitals with similar data. Children of 15 years weighted only 27 kg
  5. eBackscatter factors from [36] applied to incident air kerma (from Table 3)
  6. fCentre I two rooms averaged
  7. gCentre II
  8. h2.5 mm Al
  9. i5.5 mm Al filtration
  10. jScreen-film, average of two rooms
  11. kComputed radiography, average of two rooms
  12. lHospital A
  13. mHospital B
  14. nSmaller children, typically no grid and no AEC
  15. oLarger children, typically with grid and/or AEC