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Table 2 Examples of new potential PET tracers for TSPO imaging in clinical studies

From: Current paradigm of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) as a molecular target for PET imaging in neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases

PET tracer Chemical class Diseased/healthy subjects Findings
[11C]DAA1106 Phenoarylacetamides [6] AD, ALS, FTD, MS, CI Higher binding affinity compared with PK11195 [33, 43]a
[11C]vinpocetine Vina alkaloids[4] MS, healthy subjects Higher BP but potential different binding sites as PK11195 [4446]
[18F]FEDAA1106 Phenoarylacetamides [6] Healthy subjects Match known patterns of TSPO distribution [47]a
[11C]PBR28 Phenoarylacetamides [6] Healthy subjects Good agreement of pattern in TSPO distribution [35]a
[11C]AC-5216 Oxodihydropurines [5] Healthy subjects Match known patterns of TSPO distribution [36]a
[11C]DPA-713 Pyrazolo-[1,5-a]-pyrimidines [7] Healthy subjects Potentially higher binding affinity than PK11195 [37]a
[18F]DPA-714 Pyrazolo-[1,5-a]-pyrimidines [7] Healthy subjects Potentially higher binding potential in brain [38]
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, MS multiple sclerosis, FTD frontotemporal dementia, CI cerebral infarction
  2. aMixed-affinity binding in human brain