Skip to main content

Table 2 Levels of waste and possible solutions applied to the procurement process of vascular stents in the interventional radiology department

From: Lean manufacturing and Toyota Production System terminology applied to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Gross waste Possible solution Process and method waste Possible solution Micro waste Possible solution
In general Institutional level In general Process level In general Personal level
  Work-in-progress   Scheduling improvement   Long changeover   Preparation in advance   Excess walking, looking for stock, speed and feed, bending and reaching, double handling   Improving ergonomic behaviour and thinking in advance
  Poor plant layout   Architectural optimisation   Late maintenance   Request in advance   Paperwork   Reduce and delegate as much as possible
  Rejected, returned and damaged products   Prevention and advance identification   Temporary storage   As little as possible   
  Dirty equipment   Meet hygiene standards   Equipment problems   Check in advance   
  Rework   Attain best medical practice   Unsafe method   Reject in advance   
  Container and batch size   Architectural/conceptual efficiency   Poor workplace design for specific processes   Improve set-up in advance as much as possible   
  Material not delivered to point of use   Clear and binding orders, e.g. visualisation   No SOP   SOP creation