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Table 1 Questions about medical radiation use and radiation protection

From: Clinicians’ justification of imaging: do radiation issues play a role?

Questions Response categories
To what extent are the listed factors important when you refer a patient for imaging? Weighting of importance 1–6; 1 = very important, 6 = not important
 Radiation dose to patient  
 Patient’s wish  
 Impact on diagnosis  
 Impact on treatment  
 Impact on patient’s future health  
Do you know of imaging referral guidelines where referrers can seek information on which investigations are indicated for which conditions? Yes/no
Have you ever used such referral guidelines? Yes/no
Do you refer patients for imaging in cases when you consider it most unlikely that the imaging results will affect treatment of the patient? Yes/no
If yes, what is the proportion of such referrals among all your referrals (circa)? 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 50%
What are the reasons why you may refer when the imaging results most likely will not affect treatment? Please weight the listed reasons Weighting of importance 1–4; 1 = very important, 4 = not important
 Patient expectations  
 Give the patient the feeling of being taken seriously  
 Lack of time, “get the patient out of the office”, discharge the patient  
 Expectations from relatives  
 Compensate for insufficient clinical examination  
 Normal findings will reassure the patient  
Please estimate the effective dose of the listed imaging procedures, compared to a chest x-ray (front and side projection). Please put a mark, even if you are uncertaina Corresponding numbers of chest x-rays (front and side projection): 0–1, 1–10, 10–50, 50–200
 Cerebral CT  
 Pelvic radiography  
 Cerebral MRI  
 Intravenous pyelography  
 Chest CT  
 Barium meal fluoroscopy  
 Barium enema  
 Abdominal CT  
 Kidney ultrasound  
 Thoracic spine radiography  
 Sinus x-ray  
 Sinus CT  
We ask you to rank the contributors to the mean effective radiation dose for a Norwegian in 2006 Rank, 1 = largest contributor, 5 = smallest contributor
 Medical imaging  
 Radon in homes  
 Background gamma radiation  
 Pollution from Sellafield in England  
 Pollution from the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident  
Detrimental effects of radiation are divided into deterministic and stochastic effects. Are you familiar with these terms? If yes, go to next question Yes/no
This is a list of potential detrimental effects of radiation. Please mark whether you think these effects are stochastic or deterministic (one mark per effect) Stochastic/deterministic
 Leukaemia  
 Infertility  
 Foetus abnormalities  
 Genetic adverse effects  
 Cataract  
 Lung cancer  
  1. aEstimates of effective dose were compared with national reference values or—when such values were lacking—with doses measured at the first author’s department